Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: Results from the global burden of disease study 2017

Spencer L. James, Chris D. Castle, Zachary V. Dingels, Jack T. Fox, Erin B. Hamilton, Zichen Liu, Nicholas L.S. Roberts, Dillon O. Sylte, Nathaniel J. Henry, Kate E. LeGrand, Ahmed Abdelalim, Amir Abdoli, Ibrahim Abdollahpour, Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader, Aidin Abedi, Akine Eshete Abosetugn, Abdelrahman I. Abushouk, Oladimeji M. Adebayo, Marcela Agudelo-Botero, Tauseef AhmadRushdia Ahmed, Muktar Beshir Ahmed, Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour, Fares Alahdab, Genet Melak Alamene, Fahad Mashhour Alanezi, Animut Alebel, Niguse Meles Alema, Suliman A. Alghnam, Samar Al-Hajj, Beriwan Abdulqadir Ali, Saqib Ali, Mahtab Alikhani, Cyrus Alinia, Vahid Alipour, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Nihad A. Almasri, Khalid Altirkawi, Yasser Sami Abdeldayem Amer, Saeed Amini, Arianna Maever Loreche Amit, Catalina Liliana Andrei, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Carl Abelardo T. Antonio, Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah, Jalal Arabloo, Morteza Arab-Zozani, Zohreh Arefi, Olatunde Aremu, Filippo Ariani, Amit Arora, Malke Asaad, Babak Asghari, Nefsu Awoke, Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Getinet Ayano, Martin Amogre Ayanore, Samad Azari, Ghasem Azarian, Alaa Badawi, Ashish D. Badiye, Eleni Bagli, Atif Amin Baig, Mohan Bairwa, Ahad Bakhtiari, Arun Balachandran, Maciej Banach, Srikanta K. Banerjee, Palash Chandra Banik, Amrit Banstola, Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo, Till Winfried Bärnighausen, Lope H. Barrero, Akbar Barzegar, Mohsen Bayati, Bayisa Abdissa Baye, Neeraj Bedi, Masoud Behzadifar, Tariku Tesfaye Bekuma, Habte Belete, Corina Benjet, Derrick A. Bennett, Isabela M. Bensenor, Kidanemaryam Berhe, Pankaj Bhardwaj, Anusha Ganapati Bhat, Krittika Bhattacharyya, Sadia Bibi, Ali Bijani, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed, Guilherme Borges, Antonio Maria Borzì, Soufiane Boufous, Alexandra Brazinova, Nikolay Ivanovich Briko, Shyam S. Budhathoki, Josip Car, Rosario Cárdenas, Félix Carvalho, João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela, Giulio Castelpietra, Ferrán Catalá-López, Ester Cerin, Joht S. Chandan, Wagaye Fentahun Chanie, Soosanna Kumary Chattu, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Irini Chatziralli, Neha Chaudhary, Daniel Youngwhan Cho, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, Dinh Toi Chu, Samantha M. Colquhoun, Maria Magdalena Constantin, Vera M. Costa, Giovanni Damiani, Ahmad Daryani, Claudio Alberto Dávila-Cervantes, Feleke Mekonnen Demeke, Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis, Gebre Teklemariam Demoz, Desalegn Getnet Demsie, Afshin Derakhshani, Kebede Deribe, Rupak Desai, Mostafa Dianati Nasab, Diana Dias da Silva, Zahra Sadat Dibaji Forooshani, Kerrie E. Doyle, Tim Robert Driscoll, Eleonora Dubljanin, Bereket Duko Adema, Arielle Wilder Eagan, Aziz Eftekhari, Elham Ehsani-Chimeh, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Demelash Abewa Elemineh, Shaimaa I. El-Jaafary, Ziad El-Khatib, Christian Lycke Ellingsen, Mohammad Hassan Emamian, Daniel Adane Endalew, Sharareh Eskandarieh, Pawan Sirwan Faris, Andre Faro, Farshad Farzadfar, Yousef Fatahi, Wubalem Fekadu, Tomas Y. Ferede, Seyed Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Eduarda Fernandes, Pietro Ferrara, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Irina Filip, Florian Fischer, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Masoud Foroutan, Joel Msafiri Francis, Richard Charles Franklin, Takeshi Fukumoto, Biniyam Sahiledengle Geberemariyam, Abadi Kahsu Gebre, Ketema Bizuwork Gebremedhin, Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel, Berhe Gebremichael, Getnet Azeze Gedefaw, Birhanu Geta, Mansour Ghafourifard, Farhad Ghamari, Ahmad Ghashghaee, Asadollah Gholamian, Tiffany K. Gill, Alessandra C. Goulart, Ayman Grada, Michal Grivna, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen Gubari, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Yuming Guo, Gaurav Gupta, Juanita A. Haagsma, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli, Brian James Hall, Randah R. Hamadeh, Samer Hamidi, Josep Maria Haro, Md Mehedi Hasan, Amir Hasanzadeh, Soheil Hassanipour, Hadi Hassankhani, Hamid Yimam Hassen, Rasmus Havmoeller, Khezar Hayat, Delia Hendrie, Fatemeh Heydarpour, Martha Híjar, Hung Chak Ho, Chi Linh Hoang, Michael K. Hole, Ramesh Holla, Naznin Hossain, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Sorin Hostiuc, Guoqing Hu, Segun Emmanuel Ibitoye, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Irena Ilic, Milena D. Ilic, Leeberk Raja Inbaraj, Endang Indriasih, Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, M. Mofizul Islam, Rebecca Q. Ivers, Kathryn H. Jacobsen, Mohammad Ali Jahani, Nader Jahanmehr, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Farzad Jalilian, Sudha Jayaraman, Achala Upendra Jayatilleke, Ravi Prakash Jha, Yetunde O. John-Akinola, Jost B. Jonas, Nitin Joseph, Farahnaz Joukar, Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak, Suresh Banayya Jungari, Mikk Jürisson, Ali Kabir, Rajendra Kadel, Amaha Kahsay, Leila R. Kalankesh, Rohollah Kalhor, Teshome Abegaz Kamil, Tanuj Kanchan, Neeti Kapoor, Manoochehr Karami, Amir Kasaeian, Hagazi Gebremedhin Kassaye, Taras Kavetskyy, Hafte Kahsay Kebede, Peter Njenga Keiyoro, Abraham Getachew Kelbore, Bayew Kelkay, Yousef Saleh Khader, Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Nauman Khalid, Ibrahim A. Khalil, Rovshan Khalilov, Mohammad Khammarnia, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Maseer Khan, Tripti Khanna, Habibolah Khazaie, Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani, Roba Khundkar, Daniel N. Kiirithio, Young Eun Kim, Daniel Kim, Yun Jin Kim, Adnan Kisa, Sezer Kisa, Hamidreza Komaki, Shivakumar K.M. Kondlahalli, Vladimir Andreevich Korshunov, Ai Koyanagi, Moritz U.G. Kraemer, Kewal Krishan, Burcu Kucuk Bicer, Nuworza Kugbey, Vivek Kumar, Nithin Kumar, G. Anil Kumar, Manasi Kumar, Girikumar Kumaresh, Om P. Kurmi, Oluwatosin Kuti, Carlo La Vecchia, Faris Hasan Lami, Prabhat Lamichhane, Justin J. Lang, Van C. Lansingh, Dennis Odai Laryea, Savita Lasrado, Arman Latifi, Paolo Lauriola, Janet L. Leasher, Shaun Wen Huey Lee, Tsegaye Lolaso Lenjebo, Miriam Levi, Shanshan Li, Shai Linn, Xuefeng Liu, Alan D. Lopez, Paulo A. Lotufo, Raimundas Lunevicius, Ronan A. Lyons, Mohammed Madadin, Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek, Narayan Bahadur Mahotra, Marek Majdan, Azeem Majeed, Jeadran N. Malagon-Rojas, Venkatesh Maled, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Navid Manafi, Amir Manafi, Ana Laura Manda, Narayana Manjunatha, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Borhan Mansouri, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Joemer C. Maravilla, Lyn M. March, Amanda J. Mason-Jones, Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi, Benjamin Ballard Massenburg, Pallab K. Maulik, Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles, Addisu Melese, Zeleke Aschalew Melketsedik, Peter T.N. Memiah, Walter Mendoza, Ritesh G. Menezes, Meresa Berwo Mengesha, Melkamu Merid Mengesha, Tuomo J. Meretoja, Atte Meretoja, Hayimro Edemealem Merie, Tomislav Mestrovic, Bartosz Miazgowski, Tomasz Miazgowski, Ted R. Miller, G. K. Mini, Andreea Mirica, Erkin M. Mirrakhimov, Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Prasanna Mithra, Babak Moazen, Masoud Moghadaszadeh, Efat Mohamadi, Yousef Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad, Aso Mohammad Darwesh, Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani, Reza Mohammadpourhodki, Shafiu Mohammed, Jemal Abdu Mohammed, Farnam Mohebi, Mariam Molokhia, Lorenzo Monasta, Yoshan Moodley, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Masoud Moradi, Ghobad Moradi, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Farhad Moradpour, Lidia Morawska, Ilais Moreno Velásquez, Naho Morisaki, Shane Douglas Morrison, Tilahun Belete Mossie, Atalay Goshu Muluneh, Srinivas Murthy, Kamarul Imran Musa, Ghulam Mustafa, Ashraf F. Nabhan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan, Gurudatta Naik, Mukhammad David Naimzada, Farid Najafi, Vinay Nangia, Bruno Ramos Nascimento, Morteza Naserbakht, Vinod Nayak, Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe, Ionut Negoi, Josephine W. Ngunjiri, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Rajan Nikbakhsh, Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum, Chukwudi A. Nnaji, Peter S. Nyasulu, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Onome Bright Oghenetega, In Hwan Oh, Emmanuel Wandera Okunga, Andrew T. Olagunju, Tinuke O. Olagunju, Ahmed Omar Bali, Obinna E. Onwujekwe, Kwaku Oppong Asante, Heather M. Orpana, Erika Ota, Nikita Otstavnov, Stanislav S. Otstavnov, P. A. Mahesh, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Smita Pakhale, Keyvan Pakshir, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Eun Kee Park, Sangram Kishor Patel, Ashish Pathak, Sanghamitra Pati, George C. Patton, Kebreab Paulos, Amy E. Peden, Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito, Jeevan Pereira, Hai Quang Pham, Michael R. Phillips, Marina Pinheiro, Roman V. Polibin, Suzanne Polinder, Hossein Poustchi, Swayam Prakash, Dimas Ria Angga Pribadi, Parul Puri, Zahiruddin Quazi Syed, Mohammad Rabiee, Navid Rabiee, Amir Radfar, Anwar Rafay, Ata Rafiee, Alireza Rafiei, Fakher Rahim, Siavash Rahimi, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Ali Rajabpour-Sanati, Fatemeh Rajati, Ivo Rakovac, Kavitha Ranganathan, Sowmya J. Rao, Vahid Rashedi, Prateek Rastogi, Priya Rathi, Salman Rawaf, Lal Rawal, Reza Rawassizadeh, Vishnu Renjith, Andre M.N. Renzaho, Serge Resnikoff, Aziz Rezapour, Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Jennifer Rickard, Carlos Miguel Rios González, Luca Ronfani, Gholamreza Roshandel, Anas M. Saad, Yogesh Damodar Sabde, Siamak Sabour, Basema Saddik, Saeed Safari, Roya Safari-Faramani, Hamid Safarpour, Mahdi Safdarian, S. Mohammad Sajadi, Payman Salamati, Farkhonde Salehi, Saleh Salehi Zahabi, Marwa R. Rashad Salem, Hosni Salem, Omar Salman, Inbal Salz, Abdallah M. Samy, Juan Sanabria, Lidia Sanchez Riera, Milena M. Santric Milicevic, Abdur Razzaque Sarker, Arash Sarveazad, Brijesh Sathian, Monika Sawhney, Susan M. Sawyer, Sonia Saxena, Mehdi Sayyah, David C. Schwebel, Soraya Seedat, Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Feng Sha, Faramarz Shaahmadi, Saeed Shahabi, Masood Ali Shaikh, Mehran Shams-Beyranvand, Morteza Shamsizadeh, Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini, Hamid Sharifi, Aziz Sheikh, Mika Shigematsu, Jae Il Shin, Rahman Shiri, Soraya Siabani, Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Jasvinder A. Singh, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Catalin Gabriel Smarandache, Emma U.R. Smith, Amin Soheili, Bija Soleymani, Ali Reza Soltanian, Joan B. Soriano, Muluken Bekele Sorrie, Ireneous N. Soyiri, Dan J. Stein, Mark A. Stokes, Babale Sufiyan Mu'awiyyah, Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria, Bryan L. Sykes, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Karen M. Tabb, Biruk Wogayehu Taddele, Degena Bahrey Tadesse, Animut Tagele Tamiru, Ingan Ukur Tarigan, Yonatal Mesfin Tefera, Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi, Merhawi Gebremedhin Tekle, Gebretsadkan Hintsa Tekulu, Ayenew Kassie Tesema, Berhe Etsay Tesfay, Rekha Thapar, Asres Bedaso Tilahune, Kenean Getaneh Tlaye, Hamid Reza Tohidinik, Roman Topor-Madry, Bach Xuan Tran, Khanh Bao Tran, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Alexander C. Tsai, Lorainne Tudor Car, Saif Ullah, Irfan Ullah, Maida Umar, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, Era Upadhyay, Olalekan A. Uthman, Pascual R. Valdez, Tommi Juhani Vasankari, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Francesco S. 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Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries. methods We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Findings In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505). Interpretation Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)I96-I114
JournalInjury Prevention
Volume26
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Competing interests Dr. James reports grants from Sanofi Pasteur, outside the submitted work. Dr. Driscoll reports grants from World Health Organization, during the conduct of the study. Dr. Ivers reports grants from National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, during the conduct of the study. Dr. Jozwiak reports personal fees from TEVA, personal fees from ALAB, personal fees from BOEHRINGER INGELHEIM, personal fees from SYNEXUS, non-financial support from SERVIER, nonfinancial support from MICROLIFE, non-financial support from MEDICOVER, outside the submitted work. Dr. Rakovac reports grants from World Health Organization, during the conduct of the study. Dr Shariful Islam is funded by National Heart Foundation of Australia and Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University. Dr. Sheikh reports grants from Health Data Research UK, outside the submitted work. Dr. Singh reports personal fees from Crealta/Horizon, Medisys, Fidia, UBM LLC, Trio health, Medscape, WebMD, Clinical Care options, Clearview healthcare partners, Putnam associates, Spherix, Practice Point communications, the National Institutes of Health and the American College of Rheumatology, and Speaker’s bureau of Simply Speaking, owns stock options in Amarin pharmaceuticals and Viking pharmaceuticals, serves on the steering committee of OMERACT, an international organization that develops measures for clinical trials and receives arm’s length funding from 12 pharmaceutical companies, serves on the FDA Arthritis Advisory Committee, is a member of the Veterans Affairs Rheumatology Field Advisory Committee, and is the editor and the Director of the UAB Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group Satellite Center on Network Meta-analysis, outside the submitted work. Dr. Stein reports personal fees from Lundbeck, personal fees from Sun, outside the submitted work. Dr. Degenhardt reports grants from Indivior, Seqirus, Reckitt Benckiser, outside the submitted work.

Funding Information:
285Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 286Pars Advanced and Minimally Invasive Medical Manners Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 287Department of Applied Physics, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin Voivodeship, Poland 288Department of Biology and Chemistry, Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University, Drohobych, Ukraine 289Department of Pharmacy, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia 290Open, Distance and eLearning Campus, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya 291Department of Dermatology, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia 292Department of Midwifery, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia 293Department of Public Health, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan 294Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran 295School of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan 296Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA 297Department of Physiology, Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan 298Health Care Management, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, zahedan, Iran 299Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan 300Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia 301Department of Health Research, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India 302Centre for Ethics, Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi, India 303Department of Psychiatry, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran 304Department of Epidemiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran 305Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford University Global Surgery Group, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK 306Research and Data Solutions, Synotech Consultant, Nairobi, Kenya 307Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea 308Department of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA 309School of Medicine, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Malaysia 310School of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway 311Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway 312Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran 313Brain Engineering Research Center, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, Tehran, Iran 314Department of Public Health Dentistry, Deemed University, karad, India 315CIBERSAM, San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain 316Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain 317Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK 318Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA 319Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India 320Department of Public Health, Yuksek Ihtisas University, Ankara, Turkey 321Department of Public Health, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey 322Department of Family and Community Health, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana 323Department of Psychology and Health Promotion, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa 324Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA 325Public Health Foundation of India, Gurugram, India 326Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya 327Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK 328Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee, India 329Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada 330Health and Nutrition Section, United Nations Childrens’ Fund (UNICEF), Accra, Ghana 331Department of Clinical Medicine and Community Health, University of Milan, Milano, Italy 332Department of Community and Family Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq 333School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia 334Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Branch, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada 335HelpMeSee, New York, NY, USA 336International Relations, Mexican Institute of Ophthalmology, Queretaro, Mexico 337Disease Control Department, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana

Funding Information:
Syed Aljunid acknowledges the Department of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Public Health, Kuwait University and International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia and for the approval and support to participate in this research project. Alaa Badawi acknowledges support from the Public Health Agency of Canada. Till B?rnighausen acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through the Alexander von Humboldt Professor award, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Felix Carvalho acknowledges UID/ MULTI/04378/2019 support with funding from FCT/MCTES through national funds. Vera M Costa acknowledges her grant (SFRH/BHD/110001/2015), received by Portuguese national funds through Funda??o para a Ci?ncia e Tecnologia (FCT), IP, under the Norma Transit?ria DL57/2016/CP1334/CT0006. Kebede Deribe acknowledges support from a grant from the Wellcome Trust [grant number 201900] as part of his International Intermediate Fellowship. Tim Driscoll acknowledges the work on occupational risk factors was partially supported by funds from the World Health Organization. Eduarda Fernandes acknowledges UID/ QUI/50006/2019 support with funding from FCT/MCTES through national funds. Yuming Guo acknowledges support from Career Development Fellowships of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (numbers APP1107107 and APP1163693). Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam acknowledges funding by a Fellowship from National Heart Foundation of Australia and Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University.Mihajlo Jakovljevic acknowledges support by the Ministry of Education Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia through the Grant number OI175014; publication of results was not contingent upon Ministry's censorship or approval. Sudha Jayaraman acknowledges support from: NIH R21: 1R21TW010439-01A1 (PI); Rotary Foundation Global Grant #GG1749568 (PI); NIH P20: 1P20CA210284-01A1 (Co-PI); DOD grant W81XWH-16-2-0040 (Co-I) during the submitted work. Yun Jin Kim acknowledges support from a grant from the Research Management Centre, Xiamen University Malaysia [grant number: XMUMRF/2018-C2/ITCM/0001]. Kewal Krishan acknowledges support by UGC Centre of Advanced Study (CAS II) awarded to the Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. Manasi Kumar acknowledges FIC/NIH funding from grant K43 1K43MH114320-01. Amanda Mason-Jones acknowledges institutional support from the University of York. Walter Mendoza is currently Program Analyst Population and Development at the Peru Country Office of the United Nations Population Fund-UNFPA, which not necessarily endorses this study. Mariam Molokhia acknowledges support from the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Center at Guy's and St Thomas' National Health Service Foundation Trust and King's College London. Ilais Moreno Vel?squez acknowledges support by the Sistema Nacional de Investigaci?n (SNI, Senacyt, Panama). Mukhammad David Naimzada acknowledges support from Government of the Russian Federation (Agreement No - 075-02-2019-967). Stanislav S. Otstavnov acknowledges the support from the Government of the Russian Federation (Agreement No - 075-02-2019-967). Ashish Pathak acknowledges support from the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, India (Grant number 2013-1253). Michael R Phillips acknowledges support in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation of China (No. 81761128031). Marina Pinheiro acknowledges FCT for funding support through program DL 57/2016-Norma transit?ria. Abdallah M. Samy acknowledges support from a fellowship from the Egyptian Fulbright Mission Program. Milena Santric Milicevic acknowledges the support from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, the Republic of Serbia (Contract No. 175087). Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi acknowledges support from the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA. Rafael Tabar?s-Seisdedos acknowledges support in part by the national grant PI17/00719 from ISCIII-FEDER. Sojib Bin Zaman acknowledges support from an "Australian Government Research Training Program (RTP) Scholarship." Louisa Degenhardt acknowledges support from an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Senior Principal Research Fellowship (#1135991) and by a National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) grant (R01DA1104470). Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation OPP1152504.

Funding Information:
651Medical Physics Department, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran 652Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA 653School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, OttawaON, Canada 654Health Services Management Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran 655Department of Health Management, Policy and Economics, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran 656Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China 657Department of Social Work and Social Administration, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China 658School of Allied Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 659Department of Psychopharmacology, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan 660Department of Sociology, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea 661Department of Health Policy & Management, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA 662School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China 663Department of Environmental Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran 664Department of Environmental Health, Academy of Medical Science, Sari, Iran 665School of Public Health and Management, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China 666Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China 667Global Health Institute, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China 668Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran 669Department of Epidemiology, University Hospital of Setif, Setif, Algeria 670Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia 671Student Research Committee, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran 672Department of Community Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran 673Department of Environment Health Engineering, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran 674Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Health Education, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran 675Department of Preventive Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China 676School of Public Health, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China 677Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China 678Indian Institute of Public Health, Public Health Foundation of India, Gurugram, India 679National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia 680Department of Community Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka 681Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK acknowledgements Syed Aljunid acknowledges the Department of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Public Health, Kuwait University and International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia and for the approval and support to participate in this research project. Alaa Badawi acknowledges support from the Public Health Agency of Canada. Till Bärnighausen acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through the Alexander von Humboldt Professor award, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Felix Carvalho acknowledges UID/ MULTI/04378/2019 support with funding from FCT/MCTES through national funds. Vera M Costa acknowledges her grant (SFRH/BHD/110001/2015), received by Portuguese national funds through Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT), IP, under the Norma Transitória DL57/2016/CP1334/CT0006. Kebede Deribe acknowledges support from a grant from the Wellcome Trust [grant number 201900] as part of his International Intermediate Fellowship. Tim Driscoll acknowledges the work on occupational risk factors was partially supported by funds from the World Health Organization. Eduarda Fernandes acknowledges UID/ QUI/50006/2019 support with funding from FCT/MCTES through national funds. Yuming Guo acknowledges support from Career Development Fellowships of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (numbers APP1107107 and APP1163693). Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam acknowledges funding by a Fellowship from National Heart Foundation of Australia and Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University.Mihajlo Jakovljevic acknowledges support by the Ministry of Education Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia through the Grant number OI175014; publication of results was not contingent upon Ministry’s censorship or approval. Sudha Jayaraman acknowledges support from: NIH R21: 1R21TW010439-01A1 (PI); Rotary Foundation Global Grant #GG1749568 (PI); NIH P20: 1P20CA210284-01A1 (Co-PI); DOD grant W81XWH-16-2-0040 (Co-I) during the submitted work. Yun Jin Kim acknowledges support from a grant from the Research Management Centre, Xiamen University Malaysia [grant number: XMUMRF/2018-C2/ITCM/0001]. Kewal Krishan acknowledges support by UGC Centre of Advanced Study (CAS II) awarded to the Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. Manasi Kumar acknowledges FIC/NIH funding from grant K43 1K43MH114320-01. Amanda Mason-Jones acknowledges institutional support from the University of York. Walter Mendoza is currently Program Analyst Population and Development at the Peru Country Office of the United Nations Population Fund-UNFPA, which not necessarily endorses this study. Mariam Molokhia acknowledges support from the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Center at Guy’s and St Thomas’ National Health Service Foundation Trust and King’s College London. Ilais Moreno Velásquez acknowledges support by the Sistema Nacional de Investigación (SNI, Senacyt, Panama). Mukhammad David Naimzada acknowledges support from Government of the Russian Federation (Agreement No – 075-02-2019-967). Stanislav S. Otstavnov acknowledges the support from the Government of the Russian Federation (Agreement No – 075-02-2019-967). Ashish Pathak acknowledges support from the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, India (Grant number 2013-1253). Michael R Phillips acknowledges support in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation of China (No. 81761128031). Marina Pinheiro acknowledges FCT for funding support through program DL 57/2016-Norma transitória. Abdallah M. Samy acknowledges support from a fellowship from the Egyptian Fulbright Mission Program. Milena Santric Milicevic acknowledges the support from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, the Republic of Serbia (Contract No. 175087). Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi acknowledges support from the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA. Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos acknowledges support in part by the national grant PI17/00719 from ISCIII-FEDER. Sojib Bin Zaman acknowledges support from an "Australian Government Research Training Program (RTP) Scholarship." Louisa Degenhardt acknowledges support from an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Senior Principal Research Fellowship (#1135991) and by a National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) grant (R01DA1104470).

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