Objective: Ovarian germ cell tumors (OGCT) are the primary ovarian malignancy affecting girls and young women. Globally, incidence rates and trends for OGCTs have not been compared in the literature and their etiology is not well described. Comparisons of incidence globally could inform etiologic hypotheses. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate geographic variation in OGCT incidence and to identify trends in incidence rates. Methods: Data were extracted from Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents (CI5) from 1988 to 2012. Rates of OGCT in women and girls were calculated for ages 0–9, 10–19, and 20–39 years and standardized to the 2000–2025 average world population. Data were aggregated within subregions corresponding to the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) geoscheme. Incidence rates were compared in subregions and average annual percent change (AAPC) was estimated using Poisson regression. Results: Overall, the highest incidence rates were observed in 10–19-year-olds. Incidence was generally the highest in Eastern Asia, Central America and North America. While incidence was variable by geographic region, less variation was observed in 0–9-year-olds as compared to adolescents and young adults. Significant increases in incidence were seen in some regions (Eastern Asia, Oceania, Western Europe, Southern Europe, and North America) and in countries with a high or very high human development index for one or more age groups. Conclusions: Evaluating 25 years of OGCT incidence data, the highest incidence rates and largest increases in incidence were seen in Eastern Asia. Future studies should focus on etiologic features that may account for geographic variation and increases in incidence of OGCT.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health ( T32 CA099936 to A.K.H.) and the Children's Cancer Research Fund , Minneapolis, MN.
- Germ cell
- Young women
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't