In June 2005, we collected 115 fecal samples from wild primates in western Uganda and examined them for Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. with the use of immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) detection. We sampled primates from an undisturbed forest in Kibale National Park and from 3 highly disturbed forest fragments outside the park. Of disturbed forest samples, red colobus (Pilocolobus tephrosceles) and red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius) harbored species of Cryptosporidium or Giardia, but black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza) did not. All primate samples from undisturbed forest were negative for both parasites. Seven of 35 (20%) red colobus and 1 of 20 red-tailed guenons (5%) from forest fragments were infected with either Cryptosporidium sp. or Giardia sp. The presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in primates living in forest fragments, but not in primates in undisturbed forest, suggests that habitat disturbance may play a role in transmission or persistence of these pathogens.