The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect has seen flourishing development from theory to application in the last three decades since its discovery in 1988. Nowadays, commercial devices based on the GMR effect, such as hard-disk drives, biosensors, magnetic field sensors, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), etc., are available in the market, by virtue of the advances in state-of-the-art thin-film deposition and micro- and nanofabrication techniques. Different types of GMR biosensor arrays with superior sensitivity and robustness are available at a lower cost for a wide variety of biomedical applications. In this paper, we review the recent advances in GMR-based biomedical applications including disease diagnosis, genotyping, food and drug regulation, brain and cardiac mapping, etc. The GMR magnetic multilayer structure, spin valve, and magnetic granular structure, as well as fundamental theories of the GMR effect, are introduced at first. The emerging topic of flexible GMR for wearable biosensing is also included. Different GMR pattern designs, sensor surface functionalization, bioassay strategies, and on-chip accessories for improved GMR performances are reviewed. It is foreseen that combined with the state-of-the-art complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) electronics, GMR biosensors hold great promise in biomedicine, particularly for point-of-care (POC) disease diagnosis and wearable devices for real-time health monitoring.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was financially supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture–National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) under Award 2020-67021-31956. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute Of Dental & Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health under Award R42DE030832. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
© 2022 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.
- brain mapping
- cardiac mapping
- disease diagnosis
- flexible sensor
- food safety
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article