Geological survey data and the move from 2-D to 4-D

Martin Culshaw, Ian Jackson, Denis Peach, Michiel J. van der Meulen, Richard Berg, Harvey Thorleifson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


This chapter discusses the role of geological surveys, the sorts of data they hold, and how these data holdings provide the public with information useful for multiple applications. Geological surveys have a specific interest in maintaining an accessible archive of geological information. The general purpose of geological surveying is to explore natural capital and natural hazards. Many geological surveys are facing the challenge of establishing appropriate budgetary support levels and determining financial sources to support the costs resulting from the transition from traditional geological mapping approaches to 3-D geological mapping programs. Geological modeling is increasingly recognized as the raison d'être and prime responsibility of geological surveys. Some geological surveys have the resources and capacity to use commercial software specifically designed to construct sophisticated 3-D and 4-D models. Combining geological models with process models permits the integration of existing scientific knowledge to define natural earth systems and how they work.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationApplied Multidimensional Geological Modeling
Subtitle of host publicationInforming Sustainable Human Interactions with the Shallow Subsurface
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)9781119163091
ISBN (Print)9781119163121
StatePublished - Jun 18 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • 3-D geological mapping program
  • 4-D models
  • Financial source
  • Geological mapping approaches
  • Geological survey
  • Natural earth systems


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