Gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas: Purification, characterization, and comparison of the enzymes from Pseudomonas testosteroni and Pseudomonas acidovorans

M. R. Harpel, J. D. Lipscomb

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The 3-hydroxybenzoate inducible gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases have been purified to homogeneity from P. acidovorans and P. testosteroni, the two divergent species of the acidovorans group of Pseudomonas. Both enzymes exhibit a 40-fold higher specific activity than previous preparations and have an (αFe)4 quaternary structure (holoenzyme Mr = 164,000 and 158,000, respectively). The enzymes have different amino terminal sequences, amino acid contents, and isoelectric points. Each enzyme contains essential active site iron that is EPR silent but binds nitric oxide quantitatively to give an EPR active complex (S = 3/2), showing that the iron is Fe2+ with coordination sites for exogenous ligands. The EPR spectra of these complexes are altered uniquely for each enzyme when gentisate is bound. This suggests that substrate binds to or near the iron and shows that the substrate-iron interactions of each enzyme are subtly different. The kinetic parameters for turnover of gentisate by the enzymes are nearly identical (kcat/Km = 4.3 × 106 s-1 M-1). Both enzymes cleave a wide range of gentisate analogs substituted in the 3 or 4 ring position, although at reduced rates relative to gentisate. Of the two enzymes, P. testosteroni gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase exhibits substantially lower kcat/Km values for the turnover of these compounds. Evidence for both steric and electronic substituent effects is obtained. In accord with the results of Wheelis et al. (Wheelis, M. L., Palleroni, N. J., and Stanier, R. Y. (1967) Arch. Mikrobiol. 59, 302-314), 3-hydroxybenzoate is shown to be metabolized by P. acidovorans through the gentisate pathway, and gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase is the only ring cleavage dioxygenase induced. In contrast, 3-hydroxybenzoate is metabolized by P. testosteroni exclusively through the protocatechuate pathway utilizing protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase, although gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase is coinduced. Growth of P. testosteroni on 3-O-methylbenzoate or 5-O-methylsalicylate is shown to result in a ∼10-fold increase in the amount of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase relative to protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase. Together, these results suggest that induction of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase by 3-hydroxybenzoate in P. testosteroni may be adventitious and that this enzyme may function in fundamentally different metabolic pathways in the two related Pseudomonas species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6301-6311
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1990


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