Accelerated lung function decline is a key COPD phenotype; however, its genetic control remains largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study using the Illumina Human660W-Quad v.1-A BeadChip. Generalized estimation equations were used to assess genetic contributions to lung function decline over a 5-year period in 4,048 European American Lung Health Study participants with largely mild COPD. Genotype imputation was performed using reference HapMap II data. To validate regions meeting genome-wide significance, replication of top SNPs was attempted in independent cohorts. Three genes (TMEM26, ANK3 and FOXA1) within the regions of interest were selected for tissue expression studies using immunohistochemistry. Two intergenic SNPs (rs10761570, rs7911302) on chromosome 10 and one SNP on chromosome 14 (rs177852) met genome-wide significance after Bonferroni. Further support for the chromosome 10 region was obtained by imputation, the most significantly associated imputed SNPs (rs10761571, rs7896712) being flanked by observed markers rs10761570 and rs7911302. Results were not replicated in four general population cohorts or a smaller cohort of subjects with moderate to severe COPD; however, we show novel expression of genes near regions of significantly associated SNPS, including TMEM26 and FOXA1 in airway epithelium and lung parenchyma, and ANK3 in alveolar macrophages. Levels of expression were associated with lung function and COPD status. We identified two novel regions associated with lung function decline in mild COPD. Genes within these regions were expressed in relevant lung cells and their expression related to airflow limitation suggesting they may represent novel candidate genes for COPD susceptibility.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Minneapolis: J.E. Connett, Ph.D. (Principal Investigator), P.L. Enright, M.D., P.G. Lindgren, M.S., P. O’Hara, Ph.D., (LHS Intervention Coordinator), M.A. Skeans, M.S., H.T. Voelker; University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA: R.M. Rogers, M.D. (Principal Investigator), M.E. Pusateri (Project Coordinator); University of Utah, Salt Lake City: R.E. Kanner, M.D. (Principal Investigator), G.M. Villegas (Project Coordinator); Safety and Data Monitoring Board: M. Becklake, M.D., B. Burrows, M.D. (deceased), P. Cleary, Ph.D., P. Kimbel, M.D. (Chairperson; deceased), L. Nett, R.N., R.R.T. (former member), J.K. Ockene, Ph.D., R.M. Senior, M.D. (Chairperson), G.L. Snider, M.D., W. Spitzer, M.D. (former member), O.D. Williams, Ph.D.; Morbidity and Mortality Review Board: T.E. Cuddy, M.D., R.S. Fontana, M.D., R.E. Hyatt, M.D., C.T. Lambrew, M.D., B.A. Mason, M.D., D.M. Mintzer, M.D., R.B. Wray, M.D.; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute staV, Bethesda, MD: S.S. Hurd, Ph.D. (Former Director, Division of Lung Diseases), J.P. Kiley, Ph.D. (Former Project OYcer and Director, Division of Lung Diseases), G. Weinmann, M.D. (Former Project OYcer and Director, Airway Biology and Disease Program, DLD), M.C. Wu, Ph.D. (Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications). Principal investigators and centers participating in ECLIPSE include: Bulgaria: Y. Ivanov, Pleven; K. Kostov, SoWa. Canada: J. Bourbeau, Montreal; M. Fitzgerald, Vancouver; P. Her-nández, Halifax; K. Killian, Hamilton; R. Levy, Vancouver; F. Maltais, Montreal; .D O’Donnell, Kingston. Czech Republic: J. Krepelka, Praha. Denmark: J. Vestbo, Hvidovre. The Netherlands: E. Wouters, Horn. New Zealand: D. Quinn, Wellington. Norway: P. Bakke, Bergen, Slovenia: M. Kosnik, Golnik. Spain: A. Agusti, Ja-ume Sauleda, Palma de Mallorca. Ukraine: Y. Feschenko, Kiev; V. Gavrisyuk, Kiev; L. Yashina, Kiev. UK: L. Yashina, W. MacNee, Edinburgh; D. Singh, Manchester; J. Wedzicha, London. USA: A. Anzueto, San Antonio, TX; S. Braman, Providence. RI; R. Casa-buri, Torrance CA; B. Celli, Boston, MA; G. Giessel, Richmond, VA; M. Gotfried, Phoenix, AZ; G. Greenwald, Rancho Mirage, CA; N. Hanania, Houston, TX; D, Mahler, Lebanon, NH; B. Make, Denver, CO; S. Rennard, Omaha, NE; C. Rochester, New Haven, CT; P. Scanlon, Rochester, MN; D. Schuller, Omaha, NE; F. Sci-urba, Pittsburg, PA; A. Sharafkhaneh, Houston, TX; T. Siler, St Charles, MO; E. Silverman, Boston, MA; A. Wanner, Miami, FL; R. Wise, Baltimore, MD; R. ZuWallack, Hartford, CT. Steering Committee: H. Coxson (Canada), C. Crim (GlaxoSmithKline, USA), L. Edwards (GlaxoSmithKline, USA), D. Lomas (UK), W. MacNee (UK), E. Silverman (USA), R. Tal-Singer (Co-chair, GlaxoSmithKline, USA), J. Vestbo (Co-chair, Denmark), J. Yates (GlaxoSmithKline, USA). ScientiWc Committee: A. Agusti (Spain), P. Calverley (UK), B. Celli (USA), C. Crim (Glaxo-SmithKline, USA), B. Miller (GlaxoSmithKline, US), W. MacNee (Chair, UK), S. Rennard (USA), R. Tal-Singer (GlaxoSmithKline, USA), E. Wouters (The Netherlands), J. Yates (GlaxoSmithKline, USA). Data deposition: Data can be obtained from dbGaP at http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gap/cgi-bin/study.cgi?study_id=phs 000335.v1.p1through dbGaP accession number phs0003 35.v1.pl. This research was supported by GENEVA (U01HG 004738). The Lung Health Study I was supported by contract NIH/N01-HR-46002. Lung tissue validation studies were supported by the NHL-BI HL095406-01. KCB was supported in part by the Mary Beryl Patch Turnbull Scholar Program. This CHS research was supported by NHLBI contracts HHSN268201200036C, N01-HC-85239, N01-HC-85079 through N01-HC-85086; N01-HC-35129, N01 HC-15103, N01 HC-55222, N01-HC-75150, N01-HC-45133 and NHL-BI grants HL080295, HL087652, HL105756 with additional contribution from NINDS. Additional support was provided through AG-023629, AG-15928, AG-20098, and AG-027058 from the NIA. See also http://www.chs-nhlbi.org/pi.htm. DNA handling and genotyp-ing was supported in part by National Center of Advancing Translational Technologies CTSI grant UL 1TR000124 and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases grant DK063491 to the Southern California Diabetes Endocrinology Research Center. FHS was funded by N01 HC 25195 from NHLBI. ECLIPSE was supported by GlaxoSmithKline. The BLSA was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute on Aging. A portion of that support was through a R&D contract with MedStar Research Institute. COPACETIC (acronym of COPD Pathology: Addressing Critical gaps, Early Treatment & diagnosis and Innovative Concepts) is funded by the European Union FP7 program, grant agreement number: 201379. GWAS genotyping was performed at the Center for Inhreited Disease Research under the support of NIH GEI grant U01 HG004438.
Acknowledgments This project was part of the Gene, Environment Association Studies (GENEVA) Consortium funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) to enhance communication and collaboration among researchers conducting genome-wide studies of complex diseases. Our group beneWted greatly from the work and eVorts of the entire consortium, especially the Coordinating Center (directed by B. Weir and C. Laurie of the University of Washington) in data cleaning and preparation for submission to the Database for Genotypes and Phenotypes (db-GaP). Special thanks also to David Levine for additional, technical support. We also acknowledge the leadership of T. Manolio of NH-GRI. We would also like to thank Helen Voelker and Kathy Farnell of the LHS Data Coordinating Center, University of Minnesota for assistance with the LHS database. We would also like to thank Corinne Boehm and Jane Romm of the Center for Inherited Disease Research, Johns Hopkins University, for technical support. The principal investigators and senior staV of the clinical and coordinating centers, the NHLBI, and members of the Safety and Data Monitoring Board of the Lung Health Study are as follows: Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH: M.D. Altose, M.D. (Principal Investigator), C.D. Deitz, Ph.D. (Project Coordinator); Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI: M.S. Eichenhorn, M.D. (Principal Investigator), K.J. Braden, A.A.S. (Project Coordinator), R.L. Jentons, M.A.L.L.P. (Project Coordinator); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD: R.A. Wise, M.D. (Principal Investigator), C.S. Rand, Ph.D. (Co-Principal Investigator), K.A. Schiller (Project Coordinator); Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN: P.D. Scanlon, M.D. (Principal Investigator), G.M. Caron (Project Coordinator), K.S. Mieras, L.C. Walters; Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland: A.S. Buist, M.D. (Principal Investigator), L.R. Johnson, Ph.D. (LHS Pulmonary Function Coordinator), V.J. Bortz (Project Coordinator); University of Alabama at Birmingham: W.C. Bailey, M.D. (Principal Investigator), L.B. Gerald, Ph.D., M.S.P.H. (Project Coordinator); University of California, Los Angeles: D.P. Tashkin, M.D. (Principal Investigator), I.P. Zun-iga (Project Coordinator); University of Manitoba, Winnipeg: N.R. Anthonisen, M.D. (Principal Investigator, Steering Committee Chair), J. Manfreda, M.D. (Co-Principal Investigator), R.P. Murray, Ph.D. (Co-Principal Investigator), S.C. Rempel-Rossum (Project Coordinator); University of Minnesota Coordinating Center,