Soybean aphid [Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)] is the most damaging insect pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the Upper Midwest of the United States and is primarily controlled by insecticides. Soybean aphid resistance (i.e., Rag genes) has been documented in some soybean accessions but more sources of resistance are needed. Incorporation of the resistance into marketed varieties has also been slow. Genome-wide association mapping can aid in identifying resistant accessions by correlating phenotypic data with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a genome. Aphid population measures from 2366 soybean accessions were collected from published studies screening cultivated soybean (G. max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc.) with aphids exhibiting Biotype 1, 2, or 3 characteristics. Genotypic data were obtained from the SoySNP50K highdensity genotyping array previously used to genotype the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. Significant associations between SNPs and soybean aphid counts were found on 18 of the 20 soybean chromosomes. Significant SNPs were found on chromosomes 7, 8, 13, and 16 with known Rag genes. SNPs were also significant on chromosomes 1, 2, 4 to 6, 9 to 12, 14, and 17 to 20 where Rag genes have not yet been mapped, suggesting that many Rag genes remain to be discovered. These SNPs can be used to determine accessions that are likely to have novel aphid resistance traits of value for breeding programs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank the Minnesota Soybean Research and Promotion Council, the Minnesota Invasive Terrestrial Plants and Pests Center, and the Minnesota Department of Agriculture for providing funding for this study. This research was supported in part by the University of Minnesota’s Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship. We would like to acknowledge those who assisted in gathering soybean aphid phenotypic data in the studies used in this analysis. We also give special thanks to Erin Gilbert for assistance on Glyma 2.0 marker positioning and Dr. Ralph Holzenthal and Dr. Amritpal Singh for providing advice on phylogenic tree analysis and presentation.
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