Genome-wide association identifies nine common variants associated with fasting proinsulin levels and provides new insights into the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes

Rona J. Strawbridge, Josée Dupuis, Inga Prokopenko, Adam Barker, Emma Ahlqvist, John R. Petrie, George V. Dedoussis, Valeriya Lyssenko, James B. Meigs, Inês Barroso, Richard M. Watanabe, Erik Ingelsson, Claudia Langenberg, Anders Hamsten, Jose C. Florez, Leif Groop, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ruth J F Loos, Nicholas J. Wareham, James B. MeigsJose C. Florez, George V. Dedoussis, Tom J. Forsen, Cyrus C. Cooper, Mike Boehnke, Francis S. Collins, Markku Laakso, Erik Ingelsson, Lars Lind, Robert Clarke, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Anders Hamsten, Udo Seedorf, Hugh Watkins, Ele Ferrannini, Manuel Serrano Ríos, Claes Göran Östenson, Erik Ingelsson, Leif Groop, Bo Isomaa, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Leif Groop, Bo Isomaa, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Nicholas J. Wareham, Nicholas J. Wareham, Caroline S. Fox, James B. Meigs, Stavroula Kanoni, Konstantinos Makrilakis, Tom J. Forsen, Eero Kajantie, Clive Osmond, Cyrus C. Cooper, Elaine M. Dennison, Karen A. Jameson, Avan A. Sayer, Markku Laakso, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Johanna Kuusisto, Alena Stancakova, Lars Lind, Björn Zethelius, Maria Nastase Mannila, Angela Silveira, Mark Walker, Harvest Gu, Björn Zethelius, Emma Ahlqvist, Valeriya Lyssenko, Fabiola Turrini, Valeriya Lyssenko, Nicholas J. Wareham, Inês Barroso, Claudia Langenberg, Felicity Payne, Ruth J F Loos, Nicholas J. Wareham, Claudia Langenberg, James B. Meigs, Josée Dupuis, Caroline S. Fox, Panos Deloukas, Kathy Stirrups, Inês Barroso, Claudia Langenberg, Felicity Payne, Nicholas J. Wareham, Narisu Narisu, Amy J. Swift, Ann Christine Syvänen, Ann Christine Syvänen, Laura Pascoe, Mark Walker, Ann Christine Syvänen, Emma Ahlqvist, Valeriya Lyssenko, Valeriya Lyssenko, Emma Ahlqvist, Peter Almgren, Benjamin F. Voight, Claudia Langenberg, Adam Barker, Momoko Horikoshi, Inga Prokopenko, Claudia Langenberg, Daniel Barnes, Jian'an Luan, Caroline S. Fox, Josée Dupuis, Chen Han, Alisa K. Manning, Denis Rybin, Stavroula Kanoni, Claudia Langenberg, Adam Barker, Anne U. Jackson, Richard M. Watanabe, Erik Ingelsson, Stefan Gustafsson, Anuj Goel, John Öhrvik, John F. Peden, Bengt Sennblad, Rona J. Strawbridge, Timothy M. Frayling, Michael N. Weedon, Weijia Xie, Erik Ingelsson, Stefan Gustafsson, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Elodie Eury, Philippe Froguel, Julie Kerr-Conte, François Pattou, Anna L. Gloyn, Paul Johnson, Mary Travers, Antigone S. Dimas, Alexandra C. Nica, Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis, Per Eriksson, Lasse Folkersen, Ferdinand M. van't Hooft, Benjamin F. Voight, Laura J. Scott, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Andrew P. Morris, Christian Dina, Ryan P. Welch, Eleftheria Zeggini, Cornelia Huth, Yurii S. Aulchenko, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Laura J. McCulloch, Teresa Ferreira, Harald Grallert, Najaf Amin, Guanming Wu, Cristen J. Willer, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Steve A. McCarroll, Claudia Langenberg, Oliver M. Hofmann, Josée Dupuis, Lu Qi, Ayellet V. Segrè, Mandy van Hoek, Pau Navarro, Kristin Ardlie, Beverley Balkau, Rafn Benediktsson, Amanda J. Bennett, Roza Blagieva, Eric Boerwinkle, Lori L. Bonnycastle, Kristina Bengtsson Boström, Bert Bravenboer, Suzannah Bumpstead, Noisël P. Burtt, Guillaume Charpentier, Peter S. Chines, Marilyn Cornelis, David J. Couper, Gabe Crawford, Alex S F Doney, Katherine S. Elliott, Amanda L. Elliott, Michael R. Erdos, Caroline S. Fox, Christopher S. Franklin, Martha Ganser, Christian Gieger, Niels Grarup, Todd Green, Simon Griffin, Christopher J. Groves, Candace Guiducci, Samy Hadjadj, Neelam Hassanali, Christian Herder, Bo Isomaa, Anne U. Jackson, Paul R V Johnson, Torben Jørgensen, Wen H L Kao, Norman Klopp, Augustine Kong, Peter Kraft, Johanna Kuusisto, Torsten Lauritzen, Man Li, Aloysius Lieverse, Cecilia M. Lindgren, Valeriya Lyssenko, Michel Marre, Thomas Meitinger, Kristian Midthjell, Mario A. Morken, Narisu Narisu, Peter Nilsson, Katharine R. Owen, Felicity Payne, John R B Perry, Ann Kristin Petersen, Carl Platou, Christine Proença, Inga Prokopenko, Wolfgang Rathmann, N. William Rayner, Neil R. Robertson, Ghislain Rocheleau, Michael Roden, Michael J. Sampson, Richa Saxena, Beverley M. Shields, Peter Shrader, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Thomas Sparsø, Klaus Strassburger, Heather M. Stringham, Qi Sun, Amy J. Swift, Barbara Thorand, Jean Tichet, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Rob M. van Dam, Timon W. van Haeften, Thijs van Herpt, Jana V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, G. Bragi Walters, Michael N. Weedon, Cisca Wijmenga, Jacqueline Witteman, Richard N. Bergman, Stephane Cauchi, Francis S. Collins, Anna L. Gloyn, Ulf Gyllensten, Torben Hansen, Winston A. Hide, Graham A. Hitman, Albert Hofman, David J. Hunter, Kristian Hveem, Markku Laakso, Karen L. Mohlke, Andrew D. Morris, Colin N A Palmer, Peter P. Pramstaller, Igor Rudan, Eric Sijbrands, Lincoln D. Stein, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Andre Uitterlinden, Mark Walker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Richard M. Watanabe, Gonçalo R. Abecasis, Bernhard O. Boehm, Harry Campbell, Mark J. Daly, Andrew T. Hattersley, Frank B. Hu, James B. Meigs, Oluf Pedersen, H. Erich Wichmann, Inês Barroso, Jose C. Florez, Timothy M. Frayling, Leif Groop, Rob Sladek, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, James F. Wilson, Thomas Illig, Philippe Froguel, Cornelia M. van Duijn, Aaron R Folsom, David Altshuler, Michael Boehnke, Mark I. McCarthy, Elizabeth K. Speliote, Cristen J. Wille, Sonja I. Bernd, Keri L. Mond, Gudmar Thorleifsso, Anne U. Jackso, Hana Lango Allen, Cecilia M. Lindgre, Jian'an Lua, Reedik Mäg, Joshua C. Randal, Sailaja Vedanta, Thomas W. Winkle, Lu Qi, Tsegaselassie Workalemah, Iris M. Hei, Valgerdur Steinthorsdotti, Heather M. Stringha, Michael N. Weedo, Eleanor Wheele, Andrew R. Woo, Teresa Ferreir, Robert J. Weyan, Ayellet V. Segrè, Karol Estrad, Liming Lian, James Nemes, Ju Hyun Par, Stefan Gustafsso, Tuomas O. Kilpeläine, Jian Yang, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Tõnu Esko, Mary F. Feitosa, Zoltán Kutalik, Massimo Mangino, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Andre Scherag, Albert Vernon Smith, Ryan Welch, Jing Hua Zhao, Katja K. Aben, Devin M. Absher, Najaf Amin, Anna L. Dixon, Eva Fisher, Nicole L. Glazer, Michael E. Goddard, Nancy L. Heard-Costa, Volker Hoesel, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Åsa Johansson, Toby Johnson, Shamika Ketkar, Claudia Lamina, Shengxu Li, Miriam F. Moffatt, Richard H. Myers, Narisu Narisu, John R B Perry, Marjolein J. Peters, Michael Preuss, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Camilla Sandholt, Laura J. Scott, Nicholas J. Timpson, Jonathan P. Tyrer, Sophie van Wingerden, Richard M. Watanabe, Charles C. White, Fredrik Wiklund, Christina Barlassina, Daniel I. Chasman, Matthew N. Cooper, John Olov Jansson, Robert W. Lawrence, Niina Pellikka, Inga Prokopenko, Jianxin Shi, Elisabeth Thiering, Helene Alavere, Maria T S Alibrandi, Peter Almgren, Alice M. Arnold, Thor Aspelund, Larry D. Atwood, Beverley Balkau, Anthony J. Balmforth, Amanda J. Bennett, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Richard N. Bergman, Sven Bergmann, Heike Biebermann, Alexandra I F Blakemore, Tanja Boes, Lori L. Bonnycastle, Stefan R. Bornstein, Morris J. Brown, Thomas A. Buchanan, Fabio Busonero, Harry Campbell, Francesco P. Cappuccio, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Yii Der Ida Chen, Chih Mei Chen, Peter S. Chines, Robert Clarke, Lachlan Coin, John Connell, Ian N M Day, Martin den Heijer, Jubao Duan, Shah Ebrahim, Paul Elliott, Roberto Elosua, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Michael R. Erdos, Johan G. Eriksson, Maurizio F. Facheris, Stephan B. Felix, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, Nele Friedrich, Nelson B. Freimer, Mao Fu, Stefan Gaget, Pablo V. Gejman, Eco J C Geus, Christian Gieger, Anette P. Gjesing, Anuj Goel, Philippe Goyette, Harald Grallert, Jürgen Gräßler, Danielle M. Greenawalt, Christopher J. Groves, Vilmundur Gudnason, Candace Guiducci, Anna Liisa Hartikainen, Neelam Hassanali, Alistair S. Hall, Aki S. Havulinna, Caroline Hayward, Andrew C. Heath, Christian Hengstenberg, Andrew A. Hicks, Anke Hinney, Albert Hofman, Georg Homuth, Jennie Hui, Wilmar Igl, Carlos Iribarren, Bo Isomaa, Kevin B. Jacobs, Ivonne Jarick, Elizabeth Jewell, Ulrich John, Torben Jørgensen, Pekka Jousilahti, Antti Jula, Marika Kaakinen, Eero Kajantie, Lee M. Kaplan, Sekar Kathiresan, Johannes Kettunen, Leena Kinnunen, Joshua W. Knowles, Ivana Kolcic, Inke R. König, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Johanna Kuusisto, Peter Kraft, Kirsti Kvaløy, Jaana Laitinen, Olivier Lantieri, Chiara Lanzani, Lenore J. Launer, Cecile Lecoeur, Terho Lehtimäki, Guillaume Lettre, Jianjun Liu, Marja Liisa Lokki, Mattias Lorentzon, Robert N. Luben, Barbara Ludwig, Paolo Manunta, Diana Marek, Michel Marre, Nicholas G. Martin, Wendy L. McArdle, Anne McCarthy, Barbara McKnight, Thomas Meitinger, Olle Melander, David Meyre, Kristian Midthjell, Grant W. Montgomery, Mario A. Morken, Andrew P. Morris, Rosanda Mulic, Julius S. Ngwa, Mari Nelis, Matt J. Neville, Dale R. Nyholt, Christopher J. O'Donnel, Stephen O'Rahilly, Ken K. Ong, Ben Oostra, Guillaume Paré, Alex N. Parker, Markus Perola, Irene Pichler, Kirsi H. Pietiläinen, Carl G P Platou, Ozren Polasek, Anneli Pouta, Suzanne Rafelt, Olli Raitakari, Nigel W. Rayner, Martin Ridderstråel, Winfried Rief, Aimo Ruokonen, Neil R. Robertson, Peter Rzehak, Veikko Salomaa, Alan R. Sanders, Manjinder S. Sandhu, Serena Sanna, Jouko Saramies, Markku J. Savolainen, Susann Scherag, Sabine Schipf, Stefan Schreiber, Heribert Schunkert, Kaisa Silander, Juha Sinisalo, David S. Siscovick, Jan H. Smit, Nicole Soranzo, Ulla Sovio, Jonathan Stephens, Ida Surakka, Amy J. Swift, Mari Liis Tammesoo, Jean Claude Tardif, Maris Teder-Laving, Tanya M. Teslovich, John R. Thompson, Brian Thomson, Anke Tönjes, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Joyce B. van Meurs, Gert Jan van Ommen, Vincent Vatin, Jorma Viikari, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Veronique Vitart, Carla I G Vogel, Benjamin F. Voight, Lindsay L. Waite, Henri Wallaschofski, G. Bragi Walter, Elisabeth Widen, Susanna Wiegand, Sarah H. Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Daniel R. Witte, Jacqueline C. Witteman, Jianfeng Xu, Qunyuan Zhang, Lina Zgaga, Andreas Ziegler, Paavo Zitting, John P. Beilby, I. Sadaf Farooqi, Johannes Hebebrand, Heikki V. Huikuri, Alan L. James, Mika Kähönen, Douglas F. Levinson, Fabio Macciardi, Markku S. Nieminen, Claes Ohlsson, Lyle J. Palmer, Paul M. Ridker, Michael Stumvoll, Jacques S. Beckmann, Heiner Boeing, Eric Boerwinkle, Dorret I. Boomsma, Mark J. Caulfield, Stephen J. Chanock, Francis S. Collins, L. Adrienne Cupples, George Davey Smith, Jeanette Erdmann, Philippe Froguel, Henrik Grönberg, Ulf Gyllensten, Per Hall, Torben Hansen, Tamara B. Harris, Andrew T. Hattersley, Richard B. Hayes, Joachim Heinrich, Frank B. Hu, Kristian Hveem, Thomas Illig, Marjo Riitta Jarvelin, Jaakko Kaprio, Fredrik Karpe, Kay Tee Khaw, Lambertus A. Kiemeney, Heiko Krude, Markku Laakso, Debbie A. Lawlor, Andres Metspalu, Patricia B. Munroe, Willem H. Ouwehand, Oluf Pedersen, Brenda W. Penninx, Annette Peters, Peter P. Pramstaller, Thomas Quertermous, Thomas Reinehr, Aila Rissanen, Igor Rudan, Nilesh J. Samani, Peter E H Schwarz, Alan R. Shuldiner, Timothy D. Spector, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Manuela Uda, André Uitterlinden, Timo T. Valle, Martin Wabitsch, Gérard Waeber, Nicholas J. Wareham, Hugh Watkins, James F. Wilson, Alan F. Wright, M. Carola Zillikens, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Steven A. McCarroll, Shaun Purcell, Eric E. Schadt, Peter M. Visscher, Themistocles L. Assimes, Ingrid B. Borecki, Panos Deloukas, Caroline S. Fox, Leif C. Groop, Talin Haritunians, David J. Hunter, Robert C. Kaplan, Karen L. Mohlke, Jeffrey R. O'Connell, Leena Peltonen, David Schlessinger, David P. Strachan, Cornelia M. van Duijn, H. Erich Wichmann, Timothy M. Frayling, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Gonçalo R. Abecasis, Inês Barroso, Michael Boehnke, Kari Stefansson, Kari E. North, Mark I. McCarthy, Joel N. Hirschhorn, Erik Ingelsson, Ruth J F Loos, Alexandra C. Nica, Leopold Parts, Daniel Glass, James Nisbet, Amy Barrett, Magdalena Sekowska, Mary Travers, Simon Potter, Elin Grundberg, Kerrin Small, Åsa K. Hedman, Veronique Bataille, Jordana Tzenova Bell, Gabriela Surdulescu, Antigone S. Dimas, Catherine Ingle, Frank O. Nestle, Paola di Meglio, Josine L. Min, Alicja Wilk, Christopher J. Hammond, Neelam Hassanali, Tsun Po Yang, Stephen B. Montgomery, Steve O'Rahilly, Cecilia M. Lindgren, Krina T. Zondervan, Nicole Soranzo, Inês Barroso, Richard Durbin, Kourosh Ahmadi, Panos Deloukas, Mark I. McCarthy, Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis, Timothy D. Spector, Heribert Schunkert, Inke R. König, Sekar Kathiresan, Muredach P. Reilly, Themistocles L. Assimes, Hilma Holm, Michael Preuss, Alexandre F R Stewart, Maja Barbalic, Christian Gieger, Devin Absher, Zouhair Aherrahrou, Hooman Allayee, David Altshuler, Sonia S. Anand, Karl Andersen, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Diego Ardissino, Stephen G. Ball, Anthony J. Balmforth, Timothy A. Barnes, Diane M. Becker, Lewis C. Becker, Klaus Berger, Joshua C. Bis, S. Matthijs Boekholdt, Eric Boerwinkle, Peter S. Braund, Morris J. Brown, Mary Susan Burnett, Ian Buysschaert, John F. Carlquist, Li Chen, Sven Cichon, Veryan Codd, Robert W. Davies, George Dedoussis, Abbas Dehghan, Serkalem Demissie, Joseph M. Devaney, Patrick Diemert, Ron Do, Angela Doering, Sandra Eifert, Nour Eddine El Mokhtari, Stephen G. Ellis, Roberto Elosua, James C. Engert, Stephen E. Epstein, Ulf de Faire, Marcus Fischer, Jennifer Freyer, Bruna Gigante, Domenico Girelli, Solveig Gretarsdottir, Vilmundur Gudnason, Jeffrey R. Gulcher, Eran Halperin, Naomi Hammond, Stanley L. Hazen, Albert Hofman, Benjamin D. Horne, Thomas Illig, Carlos Iribarren, Gregory T. Jones, J. Wouter Jukema, Michael A. Kaiser, Lee M. Kaplan, John J P Kastelein, Kay Tee Khaw, Joshua W. Knowles, Genovefa Kolovou, Augustine Kong, Reijo Laaksonen, Diether Lambrechts, Karin Leander, Guillaume Lettre, Mingyao Li, Wolfgang Lieb, Christina Loley, Andrew J. Lotery, Pier M. Mannucci, Seraya Maouche, Nicola Martinelli, Pascal P. McKeown, Christa Meisinger, Thomas Meitinger, Olle Melander, Pier Angelica Merlini, Vincent Mooser, Thomas Morgan, Thomas W. Mühleisen, Joseph B. Muhlestein, Thomas Münzel, Kiran Musunuru, Janja Nahrstaedt, Christopher P. Nelson, Markus M. Nöthen, Oliviero Olivieri, Riyaz S. Patel, Chris C. Patterson, Annette Peters, Flora Peyvandi, Liming Qu, Arshed A. Quyyumi, Daniel J. Rader, Loukianos S. Rallidis, Catherine Rice, Frits R. Rosendaal, Diana Rubin, Veikko Salomaa, M. Lourdes Sampietro, Manj S. Sandhu, Eric Schadt, Arne Schäfer, Arne Schillert, Stefan Schreiber, Jürgen Schrezenmeir, Stephen M. Schwartz, David S. Siscovick, Mohan Sivananthan, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Albert Smith, Tamara B. Smith, Jaapjan D. Snoep, Nicole Soranzo, John A. Spertus, Klaus Stark, Kathy Stirrups, Monika Stoll, W. H Wilson Tang, Stephanie Tennstedt, Gudmundur Thorgeirsson, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Maciej Tomaszewski, Andre G. Uitterlinden, Andre M. van Rij, Benjamin F. Voight, Nick J. Wareham, George A. Wells, H. Erich Wichmann, Philipp S. Wild, Christina Willenborg, Jaqueline C M Witteman, Benjamin J. Wright, Shu Ye, Tanja Zeller, Andreas Ziegler, Francois Cambien, Alison H. Goodall, L. Adrienne Cupples, Thomas Quertermous, Winfried März, Christian Hengstenberg, Stefan Blankenberg, Willem H. Ouwehand, Alistair S. Hall, Panos Deloukas, John R. Thompson, Kari Stefansson, Robert Roberts, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Christopher J. O'Donnell, Ruth McPherson, Jeanette Erdmann, Nilesh J. Samani, Jemma C. Hopewell, Sarah Parish, Alison Offer, Robert Clarke, Louise Bowman, Peter Sleight, Jane Armitage, Richard Peto, Rory Collins, John C. Chambers, Goncalo Abecasis, Nabeel Ahmed, Mark Caulfield, Peter Donnelly, Paul Elliott, Philippe Froguel, Angad S. Kooner, Mark McCarthy, Nilesh Samani, James Scott, Joban Sehmi, Weihua Zhang, Jaspal S. Kooner, Rona Strawbridge, Maria Sabater-Lleal, Anders Mälarstig, Bengt Sennblad, John Öhrvik, Angela Silveira, Ferdinand van't Hooft, Per Eriksson, Anders Hamsten, Mai Lis Hellénius, Gunnar Olsson, Stephan Rust, Gerd Assmann, Udo Seedorf, Simona Barlera, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Gianni Tognoni, Robert Clarke, Pamela Linksted, Jemma C. Hopewell, Rory Collins, John F. Peden, Anuj Goel, Halit Ongen, Theodosios Kyriakou, Fiona Green, Martin Farrall, Hugh Watkins, Danish Saleheen, Asif Rasheed, Moazzam Zaidi, Nabi Shah, Maria Samuel, Nadeem Mallick, Muhammad Azhar, Khan Shah Zaman, Adbus Samad, Muhammad Ishaq, Ali Gardezi, Fazal ur Rehman Memon, Nilesh Samani, Philippe Frossard, Panos Deloukas, John Danesh

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