Crotonaldehyde (CRA) is an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde that is genotoxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic, and forms 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine. Humans are exposed to CRA in work places, and from tobacco smoke, environmental pollution, food, and beverages. In addition, CRA is a product of endogenous lipid peroxidation, arising as a consequence of oxidative stress and electrophilic stress, which may be related to development of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we used 24 k whole human DNA chips for identification of gene expression profiles by treatment of CRA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Among the 24,000 genes of cDNA microarrays, we identified up- and down-regulated genes that changed by more than 1.8 and 2 fold by CRA. Our data showed that CRA changed gene expression patterns at the genome-wide transcriptional level in HUVECs. And several genes showed association with cardiovascular diseases.
- Endothelial cells
- Gene expression profile