Genitourinary Tract Infection Due to Mycobacterium avium intracellulare Complex Infection in Pretransplant Setting With Recurrence Following Transplant: A Case Report

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Genitourinary (GU) tract infection with Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAI) is very rare and, to our knowledge, has never been reported in the solid organ transplant literature. Case Description: A 61-year-old Somali-born woman had a history of liver cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C infection. She was diagnosed as having and treated for latent tuberculosis infection and GU tract infection due to MAI. She received a total of 17 months antimycobacterial therapy consisting of azithromycin, ethambutol, and moxifloxacin. Within 5 months of the initiation of antimicrobial therapy, there was documented sterilization of urine mycobacterial cultures. Liver and kidney transplant was performed 3 months after finishing the treatment course. One year following transplant, GU tract infection due to MAI recurred. She declined further diagnostic testing as well as mycobacterial therapy. She died 15 months following transplant for reasons not related to infections. Conclusion: The treatment of MAI infection in solid organ transplant candidates and recipients is challenging, and the duration of therapy in this population is not known. The recurrence of infection following transplant in this case may argue in favor of a duration that extends beyond the date of transplant. The combination of a fluoroquinolone and ethambutol may successfully prevent reactivation of tuberculosis in patients with history of latent tuberculosis infection and deserves further evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3937-3939
Number of pages3
JournalTransplantation proceedings
Issue number10
StatePublished - Dec 2018


Cite this