Genetic variation of Glucose Transporter-1 (GLUT1) and albuminuria in 10,278 European Americans and African Americans: A case-control study in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

Charles C. Hsu, Wenhong L. Kao, Michael W. Steffes, Tejal Gambir, Frederick L. Brancati, Charles W. Heilig, Alan R. Shuldiner, Eric A. Boerwinkle, Josef Coresh

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Abstract

Background: Evidence suggests glucose transporter-1(GLUT1) genetic variation affects diabetic nephropathy and albuminuria. Our aim was to evaluate associations with albuminuria of six GLUT1 single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs), particularly XbaI and the previously associated Enhancer-2(Enh2) SNP.Methods: A two-stage case-control study was nested in a prospective cohort study of 2156 African Americans and 8122 European Americans with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio(ACR). Cases comprised albuminuria(N = 825; ≥ 30 μg/mg) and macroalbuminuria(N = 173; ≥ 300 μg/mg). ACR < 30 μg/mg classified controls(n = 9453). Logistic regression and odds ratios(OR) assessed associations. The evaluation phase(stage 1, n = 2938) tested associations of albuminuria(n = 305) with six GLUT1 SNPs: rs841839, rs3768043, rs2297977, Enh2(rs841847) XbaI(rs841853), and rs841858. Enh2 was examined separately in the replication phase(stage 2, n = 7340) and the total combined sample (n = 10,278), with all analyses stratified by race and type 2 diabetes.Results: In European Americans, after adjusting for diabetes and other GLUT1 SNPs in stage 1, Enh2 risk genotype(TT) was more common in albuminuric cases(OR = 3.37, P = 0.090) whereas XbaI (OR = 0.94, p = 0.931) and remaining SNPs were not. In stage 1, the Enh2 association with albuminuria was significant among diabetic European Americans(OR = 2.36, P = 0.025). In African Americans, Enh2 homozygosity was rare(0.3%); XbaI was common(18.0% AA) and not associated with albuminuria. In stage 2(n = 7,340), Enh2 risk genotype had increased but non-significant OR among diabetic European Americans(OR = 1.66, P = 0.192) and not non-diabetics(OR = 0.99, p = 0.953), not replicating stage 1. Combining stages 1 and 2, Enh2 was associated with albuminuria(OR 2.14 [1.20-3.80], P = 0.009) and macroalbuminuria(OR 2.69, [1.02-7.09], P = 0.045) in diabetic European Americans. The Enh2 association with macroalbuminuria among non-diabetic European Americans with fasting insulin(OR = 1.84, P = 0.210) was stronger at the highest insulin quartile(OR = 4.08, P = 0.040).Conclusions: As demonstrated with type 1 diabetic nephropathy, the GLUT1 Enh2 risk genotype, instead of XbaI, may be associated with type 2 diabetic albuminuria among European Americans, though an association is not conclusive. The association among diabetic European Americans found in stage 1 was not replicated in stage 2; however, this risk association was evident after combining all diabetic European Americans from both stages. Additionally, our results suggest this association may extend to non-diabetics with high insulin concentrations. Rarity of the Enh2 risk genotype among African Americans precludes any definitive conclusions, although data suggest a risk-enhancing role.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number16
JournalBMC medical genetics
Volume12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 19 2011

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