Genetic reassortment of avian, swine, and human influenza A viruses in American pigs

Nan Nan Zhou, Dennis A. Senne, John S. Landgraf, Sabrina L. Swenson, Gene Erickson, Kurt Rossow, Lin Liu, Kyoung Jin Yoon, Scott Krauss, Robert G. Webster

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469 Scopus citations


In late summer through early winter of 1998, there were several outbreaks of respiratory disease in the swine herds of North Carolina, Texas, Minnesota, and Iowa. Four viral isolates from outbreaks in different states were analyzed genetically. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the four swine viruses had emerged through two different pathways. The North Carolina isolate is the product of genetic reassortment between H3N2 human and classic swine H1N1 influenza viruses, while the others arose from reassortment of human H3N2, classic swine H1N1, and avian viral genes. The hemagglutinin genes of the four isolates were all derived from the human H3N2 virus circulating in 1995. It remains to be determined if either of these recently emerged viruses will become established in the pigs in North America and whether they will become an economic burden.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8851-8856
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of virology
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1999


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