Comparative biochemical and histopathological data suggest that a deficiency in the glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) is responsible for a fatal neonatal disease in Quarter Horse foals that closely resembles human glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV). Identification of DNA markers closely linked to the equine GBE1 gene would assist us in determining whether a mutation in this gene leads to the GSD IV-like condition. FISH using BAC clones as probes assigned the equine GBE1 gene to a marker deficient region of ECA26q12→q13. Four other genes, ROBO2, ROBO1, POU1F1, and HTR1F, that flank GBE1 within a 10-Mb segment of HSA3p12→p11, were tightly linked to equine GBE1 when analyzed on the Texas A&M University 5000 rad equine radiation hybrid panel, while the GLB1, MITF, RYBP, and PROS1 genes that flank this 10-Mb interval were not linked with markers in the GBE1 group. A polymorphic microsatellite (GBEms1) in a GBE1 BAC clone was then identified and genetically mapped to ECA26 on the Animal Health Trust full-sibling equine reference family. All Quarter Horse foals affected with GSD IV were homozygous for an allele of GBEms1, as well as an allele of the most closely linked microsatellite marker, while a control horse population showed significant allelic variation with these markers. This data provides strong molecular genetic support for the candidacy of the GBE1 locus in equine GSD IV.