The intent of this review is to provide the clinician with a summary of what is currently known about the contribution of genetics to the origin of congenital heart disease. Techniques are discussed to evaluate children with heart disease for genetic alterations. Many of these techniques are now available on a clinical basis. Information on the genetic and clinical evaluation of children with cardiac disease is presented, and several tables have been constructed to aid the clinician in the assessment of children with different types of heart disease. Genetic algorithms for cardiac defects have been constructed and are available in an appendix. It is anticipated that this summary will update a wide range of medical personnel, including pediatric cardiologists and pediatricians, adult cardiologists, internists, obstetricians, nurses, and thoracic surgeons, about the genetic aspects of congenital heart disease and will encourage an interdisciplinary approach to the child and adult with congenital heart disease.
- AHA Scientific Statements
- Congenital heart disease