Genetic and environmental predictors of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations among middle-aged and elderly Chinese in Singapore

Kim Robien, Lesley M. Butler, Renwei Wang, Kenny B Beckman, Dinesha Walek, Woon Puay Koh, Jian Min Yuan

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68 Scopus citations


Vitamin D is known for maintaining Ca homeostasis and bone structure, and may also decrease susceptibility to chronic and infectious diseases. However, data on vitamin D status and its predictors among Southeast Asian populations are limited. We evaluated the distribution and determinants (genetic and environmental) of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among 504 middle-aged and elderly participants (aged 45-74 years) in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Data on dietary and other lifestyle factors were collected by trained interviewers. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolism pathway enzymes (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2R1, 3A4, 27B1, 24A1; vitamin D binding protein (also known as group-specific component, GC); and vitamin D receptor) were measured using stored biospecimens. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 68·8 nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were positively associated with dietary vitamin D intake, and inversely associated with hours spent sitting at work. BMI was not associated with 25(OH)D concentrations. CYP2R1 rs10741657, rs12794714, rs1993116; CYP3A4 rs2242480; and GC rs4588, rs7041, rs16847015, rs2298849 were statistically significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentrations. Individuals with the Gc2-2 haplotype (rs4588AA/rs7041TT) had statistically significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations compared to all other Gc haplotypes (P-trend < 0·001). The majority of participants (86 %) had 25(OH)D concentrations ≥ 50 nmol/l, which is consistent with the 2011 Institute of Medicine (US) recommendation for bone health, and 32 % had concentrations of ≥ 75 nmol/l that are thought to be required for broader health effects. Dietary vitamin D intake, hours spent indoors at work and genetic variation in CYP2R1, CYP3A4 and GC are significant predictors of 25(OH)D concentrations among Singapore Chinese.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)493-502
Number of pages10
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 14 2013


  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D
  • CYP2R1
  • CYP3A4
  • Group-specific component


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