Genetic and bioinformatic tools in Parkinson’s disease

Tatiana Foroud, Nathan Pankratz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


For many years, Parkinson’s disease (PD) was thought to be strictly inŸuenced by environmental factors without a substantial genetic contribution to disease etiology. However, studies from around the world have provided evidence that genetic risk factors are involved in the pathogenesis of the idiopathic form of PD. Estimates of the relative risk to firstdegree relatives of an affected individual range from 2.7 to 3.5 in the United States,1,2 2.9 in Finland,3 6.7 in Iceland,4 7.7 in France,5 3.2 in three centers within Europe,6 5.0 in Canada,7 13.4 in Italy,8 and 7.1 in Germany.9.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationParkinson's Disease, Second Edition
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9781439807156
ISBN (Print)9781439807149
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012


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