The genes responsible for conjugative transfer of the 48.4-kb Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ML3 plasmid pRS01 were localized by insertional mutagenesis. Integration of the IS946-containing plasmid pTRK28 into pRS01 generated a pool of stable cointegrates, including a number of plasmids altered in conjugative proficiency. Mapping of pTRK28 insertions and phenotypic analysis of cointegrate plasmids identified four distinct regions (Tra1, Tra2, Tra3, and Tra4) involved in pRS01 conjugative transfer. Tra3 corresponds closely to a region previously identified (D. G. Anderson and L. L. McKay, J. Bacteriol. 158:954-962, 1984). Another region (Tra4) was localized within an inversion sequence shown to correlate with a cell aggregation phenotype. Tra1 and Tra2, two previously unidentified regions, were located at a distance of 9 kb from Tra3. When provided in trans, a cloned portion of the Tra3 region complemented Tra3 mutants.