The scarcity of donor organs may be addressed in the future by using pigs to grow humanized organs with lower potential for immunological rejection after transplantation in humans. Previous studies have demonstrated that interspecies complementation of rodent blastocysts lacking a developmental regulatory gene can generate xenogeneic pancreas and kidney1,2. However, such organs contain host endothelium, a source of immune rejection. We used gene editing and somatic cell nuclear transfer to engineer porcine embryos deficient in ETV2, a master regulator of hematoendothelial lineages3-7. ETV2-null pig embryos lacked hematoendothelial lineages and were embryonic lethal. Blastocyst complementation with wild-type porcine blastomeres generated viable chimeric embryos whose hematoendothelial cells were entirely donor-derived. ETV2-null blastocysts were injected with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) or hiPSCs overexpressing the antiapoptotic factor BCL2, transferred to synchronized gilts and analyzed between embryonic day 17 and embryonic day 18. In these embryos, all endothelial cells were of human origin.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant from the Department of Defense (grant no. 11763537 to D.J.G.) and Minnesota Regenerative Medicine (to D.J.G.). We thank J. Dutton (University of Minnesota) and G. Daley (Harvard Medical School) for providing hiPSC lines. We thank C. Chapman for assisting with the hiPSC culture studies, E. Skie for genetic analyses, Y. Ren and C. Walter for the FACS analysis, and B. Coffin, A. Arnason, L. Meisner and D. Ly for morphological analyses. We thank A. Caplan for critical comments during the course of these studies. We acknowledge the Mouse Genetics Laboratory, Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and the University Imaging Center at the University of Minnesota, NorthStar Genomics, Recombinetics, DeSoto Biosciences, grafikalabs (http://grafikalabs.com/) and MOFA Global for their technical assistance. We also thank R. Prather and the National Swine Resource and Research Center at the University of Missouri for providing technical training and assistance (U42 OD011140).
© 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't