Resources are generally considered important for the practice of management. Potential resources, however, have to be put into use in order to fulfill their potential. In this paper, we use ethnographic research on the city budgeting cycle in Grand Rapids, Michigan, to explore the process of putting potential resources into use to energize desired frameworks as part of the practice of inclusive management.
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This paper, which is an equal collaboration between the two authors, was originally prepared for the National Public Management Association Conference in Tucson, Arizona, held October 25–27, 2007. We thank the participants in this study who generously contributed their thoughts and time, and Scott Byrd, Herlin Chien, Alice Diebel, Heather Goldsworthy, Helen Ingram, Steve Kelman, Anne Khademian, Guillermo Narváez, Francesca Polletta, Renee Rottner, Jonas Sprogøe, Anne Taufen Wessels, and two anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions. This research was supported by grants from the Center for Organizational Research and Center for the Study of Democracy at the University of California, Irvine, and from the National Science Foundation, under grant no. 0712876.