General resilience to cope with extreme events

Stephen R. Carpenter, Kenneth J. Arrow, Scott Barrett, Reinette Biggs, William A. Brock, Anne Sophie Crépin, Gustav Engström, Carl Folke, Terry P. Hughes, Nils Kautsky, Chuan Zhong Li, Geoffrey Mccarney, Kyle Meng, Karl Göran Mäler, Stephen Polasky, Marten Scheffer, Jason Shogren, Thomas Sterner, Jeffrey R. Vincent, Brian WalkerAnastasios Xepapadeas, Aart de Zeeuw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

261 Scopus citations


Resilience to specified kinds of disasters is an active area of research and practice. However, rare or unprecedented disturbances that are unusually intense or extensive require a more broad-spectrum type of resilience. General resilience is the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt or transform in response to unfamiliar, unexpected and extreme shocks. Conditions that enable general resilience include diversity, modularity, openness, reserves, feedbacks, nestedness, monitoring, leadership, and trust. Processes for building general resilience are an emerging and crucially important area of research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3248-3259
Number of pages12
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2012


  • Extreme events
  • General resilience
  • Polycentric governance
  • Resilience
  • Social-ecological system


Dive into the research topics of 'General resilience to cope with extreme events'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this