General population norms of the Swedish short forms of Oral Health Impact Profile

P. Larsson, M. T. John, M. Hakeberg, K. Nilner, T. List

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Summary: We reported the development and psychometric evaluation of a Swedish 14-item and a five-item short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile. The 14-item version was derived from the English-language short form developed by Slade in1997. The five-item version was derived from the German-language short form developed by John et al. in 2006. Validity, reliability and normative values for the two short form summary scores were determined in a random sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 46%, N = 1366 subjects). Subjects with sufficient OHRQoL information to calculate a summary score (N = 1309) were on average 50·1 ± 17·4 years old, and 54% were women. Short form summary scores correlated highly with the 49-item OHIP-S (r ≥ 0·97 for OHIP-S14, r ≥ 0·92 for OHIP-S5) and with self-report of oral health (r ≥ 0·41). Reliability, measured with Cronbach's alpha (0·91 for OHIP-S14, 0·77 for OHIP-S5), was sufficient. In the general population, 50% of the subjects had ≥2 OHIP-S14 score points and 10% had ≥11 points, respectively. Among subjects with their own teeth only and/or fixed dental prostheses and with partial removable dental prostheses, 50% of the population had ≥2 OHIP-S14 score points, and 10% had ≥11 points. For subjects with complete dentures, the corresponding figures were 3 and 24 points. OHIP-S5 medians for subjects in the three population groups were 1, 1 and 2 points. Swedish 14-item and 5-item short forms of the OHIP have sufficient psychometric properties and provide a detailed overview about impaired OHRQoL in Sweden. The norms will serve as reference values for future studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)275-281
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Oral Rehabilitation
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2014


  • Health-related quality of life
  • Normative values
  • Oral health-related quality of life
  • Reliability
  • Short instruments
  • Validity


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