Currently, approx 60 million individuals in the United States alone have some form of cardiovascular disease. More specifically, heart attacks continue to be an increasing problem in our society. Coronary bypass surgery, angioplasty, stenting, the implantation of pacemakers/defibrillators, and valve replacement are currently routine treatment procedures, with growing numbers of such procedures performed each year. However, such treatments often provide only temporary relief of the progressive symptoms of cardiac disease. Optimization of therapies and the development of new ones (e.g., coated vascular or coronary stents, left ventricular assist devices, and biventricular pacing) continue to dominate the cardiovascular biomedical industry.