Gender differences in treatment adherence among youth with cystic fibrosis: Development of a new questionnaire

Joän M. Patterson, Melanie Wall, Jerica Berge, Carlos Milla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Background: Some prior studies have reported that girls with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience higher morbidity and mortality compared to boys. In this study, the authors compared boys' and girls' perceptions of disease-related strains and resources associated with living with CF, and the relationship of these factors to CF treatment feelings and behaviors. Methods: All 10-21 year olds with CF at the Minnesota Cystic Fibrosis Center were invited by mail to complete a new self-report survey (Living with CF Questionnaire - LCFQ). Of these 177 youth, 58% (49 boys and 54 girls) returned surveys. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed nine factors in the LCFQ. Partial support was found for hypothesized gender differences in these factors. Compared to boys, girls reported significantly more illness-related strains and worries, including emotional strains, greater treatment discouragement, lower self-esteem, and lower adherence to some aspects of the CF treatment regimen (coughing, eating high-fat foods, taking meds/pills). Conclusions: Living with CF appears to have a greater emotional impact on adolescent girls compared to boys. These gender differences may contribute to the poorer pulmonary function observed among girls with cystic fibrosis during the adolescent years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)154-164
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Cystic Fibrosis
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2008

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a grant to the first author from the Minnesota Medical Foundation, Minneapolis, MN. They had no involvement in study design; data collection, analysis, or interpretation; writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.


  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Emotional impact
  • Gender differences
  • Treatment adherence


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