In this paper, an overview and assessment of high-performance receivers based upon Ge-on-silicon-on-insulator (Ge-on-SOI) photodiodes and Si CMOS amplifier ICs is provided. Receivers utilizing Ge-on-SOI lateral p-i-n photodiodes paired with high-gain CMOS amplifiers are shown to operate at 15 Gb/s with a sensitivity of -7.4 dBm (BER = 10-12 while utilizing a single supply voltage of only 2.4 V. The 5-Gb/s sensitivity of similar receivers is constant up to 93 °C, and 10-Gb/s operation is demonstrated at 85 °C. Error-free BER < 10-12 operation of receivers combining a Ge-on-SOI photodiode with a single-ended high-speed receiver front end is demonstrated at 19 Gb/s, using a supply voltage of 1.8 V. In addition, receivers utilizing Ge-on-SOI photodiodes integrated with a low-power CMOS IC are shown to operate at 10 Gb/s using a single 1.1-V supply while consuming only 11 mW of power. A perspective on the future technological capabilities and applications of Ge-detector/Si-CMOS receivers is also provided.
- Optical receivers