G×E Interaction Influences Trajectories of Hand Grip Strength

Inge Petersen, Nancy L. Pedersen, Taina Rantanen, William S. Kremen, Wendy Johnson, Matthew S. Panizzon, Lene Christiansen, Carol E. Franz, Matt McGue, Kaare Christensen, Nayla R. Hamdi, Robert F. Krueger, Chandra Reynolds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Age-related decline in grip strength predicts later life disability, frailty, lower well-being and cognitive change. While grip strength is heritable, genetic influence on change in grip strength has been relatively ignored, with non-shared environmental influence identified as the primary contributor in a single longitudinal study. The extent to which gene-environment interplay, particularly gene-environment interactions, contributes to grip trajectories has yet to be examined. We considered longitudinal grip strength measurements in seven twin studies of aging in the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies consortium. Growth curve parameters were estimated for same-sex pairs, aged 34–99 (N = 10,681). Fisher’s test for mixture distribution of within-monozygotic twin-pair differences (N = 1724) was performed on growth curve parameters. We observed significant gene-environment interaction on grip strength trajectories. Finally, we compared the variability of within-pair differences of growth curve parameters by APOE haplotypes. Though not statistically significant, the results suggested that APOE ɛ2ɛ2/ɛ2ɛ3 haplotypes might buffer environmental influences on grip strength trajectories.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)20-30
Number of pages11
JournalBehavior genetics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


  • APOE
  • Gene-environment interaction
  • Grip strength
  • Twins


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