Gauge dependence of calculations in relativistic Coulomb excitation

B. F. Bayman, F. Zardi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Before a quantum-mechanical calculation involving electromagnetic interactions is performed, the gauge to be used in expressing the potentials must be chosen. If the calculation is done exactly, the observable results it predicts will be independent of the choice of gauge. However, in most practical calculations, approximations are made, which can destroy the gauge invariance of the predictions. We compare here the results of coupled-channel time-dependent relativistic Coulomb excitation calculations as performed in either Lorentz or Coulomb gauges. We find significant differences when the bombarding energy per nucleon is ≥2 GeV, which indicates that the common practice of relying completely on the Lorentz gauge can be dangerous.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number014904
JournalPhysical Review C - Nuclear Physics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2005

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