Gate tunable light-matter interaction in natural biaxial hyperbolic van der Waals heterostructures

Aneesh Bapat, Saurabh Dixit, Yashika Gupta, Tony Low, Anshuman Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The recent discovery of natural biaxial hyperbolicity in van der Waals crystals, such as α-MoO3, has opened up new avenues for mid-IR nanophotonics due to their deep subwavelength phonon polaritons. However, a significant challenge is the lack of active tunability of these hyperbolic phonon polaritons. In this work, we investigate heterostructures of graphene and α-MoO3 for actively tunable hybrid plasmon phonon polariton modes via electrostatic gating in the mid-infrared spectral region. We observe a unique propagation direction dependent hybridization of graphene plasmon polaritons with hyperbolic phonon polaritons for experimentally feasible values of graphene chemical potential. We further report an application to tunable valley quantum interference in this system with a broad operational bandwidth due to the formation of these hybrid modes. This work presents a lithography-free alternative for actively tunable, anisotropic spontaneous emission enhancement using a sub-wavelength thick naturally biaxial hyperbolic material.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2329-2340
Number of pages12
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Research funding: A. K. acknowledges support from the Department of Science and Technology via the grants: SB/S2/RJN-110/2017, ECR/2018/001485 and DST/NM/NS-2018/49.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Aneesh Bapat et al., published by De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston.


  • biaxial hybrid plasmon phonon polariton
  • graphene
  • in-plane hyperbolic materials
  • quantum interference
  • valleytronics
  • van der Waals heterostructures


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