Background: Normal bronchial tissue expression of GRPR, which encodes the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, has been previously reported by us to be associated with lung cancer risk in 78 subjects, especially in females. We sought to define the contribution of GRPR expression in bronchial epithelia to lung cancer risk in a larger case-control study where adjustments could be made for tobacco exposure and sex.Methods: We evaluated GRPR mRNA levels in histologically normal bronchial epithelial cells from 224 lung cancer patients and 107 surgical cancer-free controls. Associations with lung cancer were tested using logistic regression models.Results: Bronchial GRPR expression was significantly associated with lung cancer (OR = 4.76; 95% CI = 2.32-9.77) in a multivariable logistic regression (MLR) model adjusted for age, sex, smoking status and pulmonary function. MLR analysis stratified by smoking status indicated that ORs were higher in never and former smokers (OR = 7.74; 95% CI = 2.96-20.25) compared to active smokers (OR = 1.69; 95% CI = 0.46-6.33). GRPR expression did not differ by subject sex, and lung cancer risk associated with GRPR expression was not modified by sex.Conclusions: GRPR expression in non-cancerous bronchial epithelium was significantly associated with the presence of lung cancer in never and former smokers. The association in never and former smokers was found in males and females. Association with lung cancer did not differ by sex in any smoking group.
- Case-control study
- Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor
- Lung cancer risk
- Surrogate tissue