Ganciclovir susceptibilities and UL97 sequences were analyzed in 20 cytomegalovirus (CMV) isolates recovered from 15 bone marrow transplant recipients with active CMV infection after prophylaxis with acyclovir (group I; 12 isolates) or after acyclovir prophylaxis followed by ganciclovir therapy (group II; 8 isolates). All group I isolates were susceptible to ganciclovir. Five group II isolates were susceptible to ganciclovir, and 3 isolates (all from the same person) were resistant to ganciclovir (IC50 >12 μM). Ganciclovir resistance UL97 mutations were found in 4 group II isolates, including a ganciclovir-susceptible isolate obtained from 1 patient after 41 days of therapy with ganciclovir and 3 ganciclovir-resistant isolates obtained from another patient after 73, 116, and 132 days of treatment with ganciclovir. Ganciclovir, resistant CMV isolates may emerge rapidly in bone marrow transplant recipients who are treated with ganciclovir after receiving prophylaxis with acyclovir.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial support: NIH (AI-27761, CA-21737), Minnesota Medical Foundation, and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y MicrobiologıBa Clinica (to N.B.).