Using data from the Chinese Household Income Project survey, we find that self-employed women have lower levels of well-being compared with their male counterparts. When comparing individuals' well-being in self-employment and wage-employment, we discover that self-employed men have higher levels of health, the standard of living, satisfaction, and life satisfaction compared with wage-employed men, whereas self-employed women have lower levels of health and life satisfaction than their counterparts in wage-employment. Furthermore, if a given self-employed man or woman had been selected for wage employment, their well-being would not improve (controlling for individual characteristics that affect the likelihood to enter self-employment). Hence, self-employed women face a double challenge: lower well-being than both self-employed men and wage-employed women. The article discusses recommendations for future research and policy implications.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Frontiers in Psychology|
|State||Published - Sep 16 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank the editor and two referees for their helpful comments. Xinyu Zhao provided excellent research assistance.
Copyright © 2022 Xiu and Ren.
- gender equality