FXYD proteins are a family of seven small regulatory proteins, expressed in a tissue-specific manner, that associate with Na,K-ATPase as subsidiary subunits and modulate kinetic properties. This study describes an additional property of FXYD proteins as stabilizers of Na,K-ATPase. FXYD1 (phospholemman), FXYD2 (γ subunit), and FXYD4 (CHIF) have been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. These FXYD proteins associate spontaneously in vitro with detergent-soluble purified recombinant human Na,K-ATPase (α1β1) to form α1β1FXYD complexes. Compared with the control (α1β1), all three FXYD proteins strongly protect Na,K-ATPase activity against inactivation by heating or excess detergent (C12E8), with effectiveness FXYD1> FXYD2 ≥ FXYD4. Heating also inactivates E1 ↔ E2 conformational changes and cation occlusion, and FXYD1 protects strongly. Incubation of α1β1 or α1β1FXYD complexes with guanidinium chloride (up to 6 M) causes protein unfolding, detected by changes in protein fluorescence, but FXYD proteins do not protect. Thus, general protein denaturation is not the cause of thermally mediated or detergent-mediated inactivation. By contrast, the experiments show that displacement of specifically bound phosphatidylserine is the primary cause of thermally mediated or detergent-mediated inactivation, and FXYD proteins stabilize phosphatidylserine-Na,K-ATPase interactions. Phosphatidylserine probably binds near trans-membrane segments M9 of the α subunit and the FXYD protein, which are in proximity. FXYD1, FXYD2, and FXYD4co-expressed in HeLa cells with rat α1 protect strongly against thermal inactivation. Stabilization of Na,K-ATPase by three FXYD proteins in a mammalian cell membrane, as well the purified recombinant Na,K-ATPase, suggests that stabilization is a general property of FXYD proteins, consistent with a significant biological function.