Functional neuroimaging of the olfactory system in humans

David H. Zald, José V. Pardo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

281 Scopus citations


Positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have begun to provide unique information regarding the neural underpinnings of olfactory functioning in humans. We review the relative strengths and weaknesses of PET and fMRI techniques for studying olfaction. We then review PET and fMRI studies relating to the olfactory functions of the pyriform cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and the entorhinal/hippocampal region. A pixelwise correlational analysis of PET data is also presented in order to clarify the relationship between blood flow in the medial temporal lobes and psychoperceptual variables. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)165-181
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Psychophysiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1 2000

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs; the Minnesota Medical Foundation; NARSAD; the Minnesota Obesity Center; the University of Minnesota (Grants-in-Aid of Research, Artistry, and Scholarship); and a National Research Service Award to Dr Zald (1 F32 MH11641-01A1). We thank Joel Lee for assistance with the pixelwise correlational analyses, Darren Dutcher for assistance with Fig. 2 and Dorothy Mattson for helpful comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript.


  • Amygdala
  • Entorhinal cortex
  • Functional MRI
  • Gyrus rectus
  • Olfaction
  • Orbitofrontal
  • Positron emission tomography
  • Pyriform cortex


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