Abnormalities in alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) proteins are risk factors for human disease. While the most common is AAT deficiency, a genetic disorder associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, additional disorders associated with AAT abnormalities are increasingly recognised. We describe a middle-aged woman who presented with fulminant hepatic and multiorgan failure. Evaluation revealed the patient to have a rare AAT phenotype PiEE. Her clinical presentation was consistent with antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, and her history suggested features of panniculitis. This is the first description of this rare homozygous AAT phenotype and possible disease associations with the 'E' protein. Given that abnormal AAT are under-recognised, and that new mutations and phenotypes continue to be identified, we will need to expand on our knowledge base and report clinical manifestations associated with these abnormal phenotypes.
- hepatitis other
- intensive care