This project evaluated associations between fruit and vegetable intake, cigarette smoking and lung cancer incidence among U.S. Black women. The Black Women’s Health Study is a prospective cohort study (analytic cohort = 46,889) among Black women between the ages 21 and 69 at baseline (1995). Fruit and vegetable intake and smoking history were ascertained via questionnaires at baseline and during follow-up. Associations between fruit and vegetable intake, smoking and lung cancer incidence (N = 306 incident cases through 2013) were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Among women in this cohort, 6.1% and 5.6% reported consuming at least three servings/d of fruit or vegetables, respectively. Smoking history was associated with increased lung cancer incidence. Being a current smoker of ≥15 cigarettes/d was associated with higher lung cancer incidence compared to never smokers (HR = 17.4, 95% CI: 11.5, 26.4). Fruit and vegetable was not associated with lung cancer incidence intake (≥5 vs. <3 servings/d, adjusted HR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.36). Associations between fruit and vegetable intake and lung cancer incidence did not differ by smoking history. Fruit and vegetable intake was low in this study population, but results do not support an association between fruit and vegetable intake and lung cancer incidence, regardless of smoking history.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was funded by National Cancer Institute grants R01 CA058420 (L. Rosenberg) and UM1 CA164974 (L. Rosenberg).
This work was funded by National Cancer Institute grants R01 CA058420 (L. Rosenberg) and UM1 CA164974 (L. Rosenberg). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Cancer Institute or the National Institutes of Health. Data on breast cancer pathology were obtained from several state cancer registries (AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, DC, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MD, MA, MI, NJ, NY, NC, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA) and results reported do not necessarily represent their views. The authors are grateful to the participants and staff of the BWHS.
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