Fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely associated with blood pressure in a Mediterranean population with a high vegetable-fat intake: The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study

Alvaro Alonso, Carmen de la Fuente, Ana M. Martín-Arnau, Jokin de Irala, J. Alfredo Martínez, Miguel Martínez-González

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

110 Scopus citations

Abstract

There is evidence that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces blood pressure (BP). Characteristically, the Mediterranean diet is rich in plant-derived foods and also in fat, but studies conducted in Mediterranean countries to relate diet to BP are scarce. We studied the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and BP in a cross-sectional analysis of 4393 participants in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study, an ongoing dynamic cohort study in Spain. Diet was measured using a food-frequency questionnaire previously validated in Spain. Fat represented more than 37% total energy intake. Subjects were considered to have undiagnosed hypertension if they reported systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, and not a medical diagnosis of hypertension. The adjusted prevalence odds ratio of undiagnosed hypertension (upper v. lowest quintile) was 0.58 (95% CI 0.36, 0.91; P for trend 0.01) for vegetable consumption and 0.68 (95% CI 0.43, 1.09; P for trend 0.10) for fruit consumption. Comparing those in the highest quintile of both fruit and vegetable consumption with those in the lowest quintile of both food groups, the prevalence odds ratio was 0.23 (95% CI 0.10, 0.55; P=0.001), after aajusting for risk factors for hypertension and other dietary exposures. In a Mediterranean population with an elevated fat consumption, a high fruit and vegetable intake is inversely associated with BP levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-319
Number of pages9
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume92
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2004

Keywords

  • Hypertension
  • Mediterranean diet
  • Plant foods

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