Object alternation (OA) tasks are increasingly used as probes of ventral prefrontal functioning in humans. In the most common variant of the OA task, subjects must deduce the task rule through trial-and-error learning. To examine the neural correlates of OA acquisition, the authors measured regional cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography while subjects acquired an OA task, performed a sensorimotor control condition, or performed already learned and practiced OA. As expected, activations emerged in the ventral prefrontal cortex. However, activation of the presupplemental motor area was more closely associated with successful task performance. The authors suggest that areas beyond the ventral prefrontal cortex are critically involved in OA acquisition.