Freezing- and Drying-Induced Micro- and Nano-Heterogeneity in Biological Solutions

Alptekin Aksan, Vishard Ragoonanan, Carol Hirschmugl

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

This chapter focuses on experimental detection and quantification of heterogeneity such as freezing-induced heterogeneity and drying-induced heterogeneity, in systems of pharmaceutical interest. In general, the main experimental methods that have been applied to detect heterogeneity and phase separation are conventional microscopy (transmitted light and fluorescence microscopy), electron microscopy (scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM)), thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)), and spectroscopy (mainly, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy). Once the degree of freezing- and desiccation-induced heterogeneity in products of industrial and commercial value is established, it is believed that the demand for the development of techniques to minimize heterogeneity (and they do exist) will increase exponentially.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationBiophysical Methods for Biotherapeutics
Subtitle of host publicationDiscovery and Development Applications
PublisherWiley-Blackwell
Pages269-284
Number of pages16
Volume9780470938430
ISBN (Electronic)9781118354698
ISBN (Print)9780470938430
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 28 2014

Keywords

  • Conventional microscopy
  • Drying-induced heterogeneity
  • Electron microscopy
  • Freezing-induced heterogeneity
  • Spectroscopy
  • Thermal analysis

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Freezing- and Drying-Induced Micro- and Nano-Heterogeneity in Biological Solutions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Aksan, A., Ragoonanan, V., & Hirschmugl, C. (2014). Freezing- and Drying-Induced Micro- and Nano-Heterogeneity in Biological Solutions. In Biophysical Methods for Biotherapeutics: Discovery and Development Applications (Vol. 9780470938430, pp. 269-284). Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118354698.ch10