Freeze injury of the tibialis anterior muscle

Gengyun C Le, Dawn A. Lowe, Michael Kyba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Freeze injury is physically induced by exposing skeletal muscle to an extremely cold probe, and results in a robust degenerative and inflammatory response. One unique aspect of freeze injury is that it destroys not only the muscle fiber cells, but also all of the mononuclear cells in the zone of injury. Repair of the muscle is accomplished by satellite cells from outside of the zone of injury, which must migrate in and which may interact with inflammatory cells, hence the length of time before apparent histological recovery of the most damaged zone is typically somewhat longer with freeze injury than with other physical or chemical methods of injury. In this chapter, we present a detailed protocol for the freeze injury of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in mouse.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-41
Number of pages9
JournalMethods in Molecular Biology
StatePublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by grants from the NIH (R01 AR055685 to MK and R01 AG031743 to DL) and Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA351022). We would like to express our heartfelt gratitude to Dr. Gordon Warren for his signifi cant contribution on development and validation of our freeze injury model.

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016.


  • Freeze injury
  • Regeneration
  • Tibialis anterior muscle


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