Freeway network design with exclusive lanes for automated vehicles under endogenous mobility demand

Shantanu Chakraborty, David Rey, Michael W. Levin, S. Travis Waller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Automated vehicles (AV) have the potential to provide cost-effective mobility options along with overall system-level benefits in terms of congestion and vehicular emissions. Additional resource allocation at the network level, such as AV-exclusive lanes, can further foster the usage of AVs rendering this mode of travel more attractive than legacy vehicles (LV). However, it is necessary to find the crucial locations in the network where providing these dedicated lanes would reap the maximum benefits. In this study, we propose an integrated mixed-integer programming framework for optimal AV-exclusive lane design on freeway networks which accounts for commuters’ demand split among AVs and LVs via a logit model incorporating class-based utilities. We incorporate the link transmission model (LTM) as the underlying traffic flow model due to its computational efficiency for system optimum dynamic traffic assignment. The LTM is modified to integrate two vehicle classes namely, LVs and AVs with a lane-based approach. The presence of binary variables to represent lane design and the logit model for endogenous demand estimation results in a nonconvex mixed-integer nonlinear program formulation. We propose a Benders’ decomposition approach to tackle this challenging optimization problem. Our approach iteratively explores possible lane designs in the Benders’ master problem and, at each iteration, solves a sequence of system-optimum dynamic traffic assignment problems in an attempt to find fixed-points representative of logit-compatible demand splits. The proposed approach is implemented on three hypothetical freeway networks with single and multiple origins and destinations. Our numerical results reveal that the optimal lane design of freeway network is non-trivial while accounting for endogenous demand of each mode.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103440
JournalTransportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd


  • Automated vehicles
  • Benders decomposition
  • Endogenous demand
  • Exclusive lanes
  • Freeway network design problem
  • Mixed-integer nonlinear programming


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