Free-form and hybrid lens models for SDSS J1004 + 4112: substructure and central image time delay constraints

Derek Perera, Liliya L.R. Williams, Jori Liesenborgs, Agniva Ghosh, Prasenjit Saha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


SDSS J1004 + 4112 is a well-studied gravitational lens with a recently measured time delay between its first and fourth arriving quasar images. Using this new constraint, we present updated free-form lens reconstructions using the lens inversion method GRALE , which only uses multiple image and time delay data as inputs. In addition, we obtain hybrid lens reconstructions by including a model of the brightest cluster galaxy as a Sersic lens. For both reconstructions, we use two sets of images as input: one with all identified images, and the other a revised set leaving out images that have been potentially misidentified. We also develop a source position optimization Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) routine, performed on completed GRALE runs, that allows each model to better match observed image positions and time delays. All the reconstructions produce similar mass distributions, with the hybrid models finding a steeper profile in the centre. Similarly, all the mass distributions are fitted by the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, finding results consistent with previous parametric reconstructions and those derived from Chandra X-ray observations. We identify an ∼5 ×10 11 M _substructure apparently unaffiliated with any cluster member galaxy and present in all our models, and study its reality. Using our free-form and hybrid models, we predict a central quasar image time delay of ∼2980 ±270 and ∼3280 ±215 d, respectively. A potential future measurement of this time delay will, while being an observational challenge, further constrain the steepness of the central density profile.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2639-2651
Number of pages13
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2023.


  • SDSS J1004 + 4112
  • clusters
  • galaxies
  • gravitational lensing
  • individual
  • strong


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