Free-breathing phase contrast MRI with near 100% respiratory navigator efficiency using k-space-dependent respiratory gating

Mehmet Akçakaya, Praveen Gulaka, Tamer A. Basha, Long H. Ngo, Warren J. Manning, Reza Nezafat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a novel respiratory motion scheme, where only the center of k-space is gated using respiratory navigators, versus a fully respiratory-gated acquisition for three-dimensional flow imaging. Methods: Three-dimensional flow images were acquired axially using a gradient echo sequence in a volume, covering the ascending and descending aorta, and the pulmonary artery bifurcation in 12 healthy subjects (33.2 ± 15.8 years; five men). For respiratory motion compensation, two gating and tracking strategies were used with a 7-mm gating window: (1) All of k-space acquired within the gating window (fully gated) and (2) central k-space acquired within the gating window, and the remainder of k-space acquired without any gating (center gated). Each scan was repeated twice. Stroke volume, mean flow, peak velocity, and signal-to-noise-ratio measurements were performed both on the ascending and on the descending aorta for all acquisitions, which were compared using a linear mixed-effects model and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: There were no statistical differences between the fully gated and the center-gated strategies for the quantification of stroke volume, peak velocity, and mean flow, as well as the signal-to-noise-ratio measurements. Furthermore, the proposed center-gated strategy had significantly shorter acquisition time compared to the fully gated strategy (13:19 ± 3:02 vs. 19:35 ± 5:02, P<0.001). Conclusions: The proposed novel center-gated strategy for three-dimensional flow MRI allows for markedly shorter acquisition time without any systematic variation in quantitative flow measurements in this small group of healthy volunteers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2172-2179
Number of pages8
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2014


  • 3D flow
  • blood flow assessment
  • cardiac MR
  • gating efficiency
  • intra-scan variability
  • mean flow
  • phase contrast MR
  • respiratory navigators
  • stroke volume


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