This paper is a study of an emerging environmental decision-making model that attempts to move beyond traditionally adversarial approaches toward "consensus building." Consensus-based decision making ostensibly allows activists equal power with industrialists and state actors in environmental policy-making. This research builds upon the growing literature on frame-analysis by demonstrating that there are instances when challengers actually engage in collaborative framing with their adversaries. This does not presume that activists reject oppositional framing altogether. In these cases, environmentalists actually draw on a mixture of confrontation and negotiation in this innovative form of collective action that positions them in contexts most environmentalists never experience - a place at the decision-making table with elites. This study reveals that environmentalists are becoming more sophisticated in their efforts to protect local communities and natural resources.
- Collaborative frames
- Collective action frames
- Consensus-based decision making
- Environmental justice
- Political economy