## Abstract

We describe an Ewald-summation method to incorporate long-range electrostatic interactions into fragment-based electronic structure methods for periodic systems. The present method is an extension of the particle-mesh Ewald technique for combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations, and it has been implemented into the explicit polarization (X-Pol) potential to illustrate the computational details. As in the QM/MM-Ewald method, the X-Pol-Ewald approach is a linear-scaling electrostatic method, in which the short-range electrostatic interactions are determined explicitly in real space and the long-range Ewald pair potential is incorporated into the Fock matrix as a correction. To avoid the time-consuming Fock matrix update during the self-consistent field procedure, a mean image charge (MIC) approximation is introduced, in which the running average with a user-chosen correlation time is used to represent the long-range electrostatic correction as an average effect. Test simulations on liquid water show that the present X-Pol-Ewald method takes about 25% more CPU time than the usual X-Pol method using spherical cutoff, whereas the use of the MIC approximation reduces the extra costs for long-range electrostatic interactions by 15%. The present X-Pol-Ewald method provides a general procedure for incorporating long-range electrostatic effects into fragment-based electronic structure methods for treating biomolecular and condensed-phase systems under periodic boundary conditions.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 7821-7829 |

Number of pages | 9 |

Journal | Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics |

Volume | 14 |

Issue number | 21 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jun 7 2012 |