Background Granulomatous myocarditis may present with sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (SMVT) in the presence of normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and could be mistaken for idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (IVT). The use of cardiac imaging for diagnosis can be limited by availability and high cost. ECG is readily available and inexpensive. Fragmented QRS (fQRS) on ECG has been found to be associated with myocardial scar. We hypothesized that fQRS could be useful in the diagnosis of granulomatous VT (GVT). Methods We compared the 12-lead ECG of 16 patients with GVT and 42 patients with IVT who presented with SMVT. Results The presence of fQRS was significantly higher in the GVT group compared to the IVT group (75% versus 19.1%, p < 0.001). The location of fQRS correlated with delayed enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (DE-CMR) in the same segment in 4/16 patients in the GVT group. It correlated with an affected segment on either DE-CMR or 18FDG positron emission computed tomography in 4/11 patients in the GVT group who had both imaging modality. Whenever fQRS was present in contiguous leads other than the inferior leads, it always corresponded to an affected segment on imaging. Conclusions In patients presenting with SMVT and no structural heart disease, the presence of fQRS is strongly associated with granulomatous myocarditis. fQRS on the surface ECG is a helpful tool the presence of which should prompt a CMR for a definitive diagnosis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Dr. Roukoz was supported by the Cardiac Electrophysiology Fellowship Fund, University of Minnesota Cardiac Arrhythmia Center . Dr. Benditt receives support from the Earl E Bakken Family Philanthropic fund for Heart-Brain Research of the University of Minnesota Foundation.
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- Cardiac sarcoidosis
- Cardiac tuberculosis
- Fragmented QRS
- Granulomatous myocarditis
- Ventricular tachycardia