FPGA-based digit-serial CSD FIR filter for image signal format conversion

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14 Scopus citations


This paper proposes the FPGA implementation of the digit-serial Canonical Signed-Digit (CSD) coefficient FIR filters which can be used as format conversion filters in place of the ones employed for the MPEG2 TM 5 (test model 5). Canonical representation of a signed digit (CSD) is a method used to reduce cost by representing a signed number using the least amount of non-zero digits, thereby reducing the number of multiply operations. As Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have grown in capacity, improved in performance, and decreased in cost, they are becoming a viable solution for performing computationally intensive tasks, with the ability to tackle applications formerly reserved for custom chips and programmable digital signal processing (DSP) devices. A digit-serial CSD FIR filter design is realized and practical design guidelines are provided using FPGAs. An analysis of the performance comparison of bit-serial, serial distributed arithmetic, and digit-serial CSD FIR filters on a Xilinx XC4000XL-series FPGA is described. The results show that the proposed digit-serial CSD FIR filter is compact and an efficient implementation of real-time DSP applications on FPGAs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)501-508
Number of pages8
JournalMicroelectronics Journal
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - May 6 2002

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency under contract number DA/DABT63-96-C-0050. The authors would like to thank Keshab Parhi for valuable conversations.


  • Adder
  • Arithmetic
  • CSD
  • Digit-serial
  • FIR filter
  • FPGA
  • Multiplier


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