Four molecular pathways of T cell adhesion to endothelial cells: Roles of LFA-1, VCAM-1, and ELAM-1 and changes in pathway hierarchy under different activation conditions

Yoji Shimizu, Walter Newman, T. Venkat Gopal, Kevin J. Horgan, Norma Graber, L. Dawson Beall, Gijs A. Van Seventer, Stephen Shaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

308 Scopus citations

Abstract

T cell adhesion to endothelium is critical to lymphocyte recirculation and influx into sites of inflammation. We have systematically analyzed the role of four receptor/ligand interactions that mediate adhesion of peripheral human CD4+ T cells to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC): T cell LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 and an alternative ligand ("ICAM-X"), T cell VLA-4 binding to VCAM-1, and T cell binding to ELAM-1. Contributions of these four pathways depend on the activation state of both the T cell and HUVEC, and the differentiation state of the T cell. ELAM-1 plays a significant role in mediating adhesion of resting CD4+ T cells to activated HUVEC. LFA-1 adhesion dominates with PMA-activated T cells but the strength and the predominant LFA-1 ligand is determined by the activation state of the HUVEC; while ICAM-1 is the dominant ligand on IL-1-induced HUVEC, "ICAM-X" dominates binding to uninduced HUVEC. Adhesion via VLA-4 depends on induction of its ligand VCAM-1 on activated HUVEC; PMA activation of T cells augments VLA-4-mediated adhesion, both in the model of T/HUVEC binding and in a simplified model of T cell adhesion to VCAM-1-transfected L cells. Unlike LFA-1 and VLA-4, ELAM-1-mediated adhesion is not increased by T cell activation. Differential expression of adhesion molecules on CD4+ T cell subsets understood to be naive and memory cells also regulates T/HUVEC adhesion. Naive T cell adhesion to HUVEC is mediated predominantly by LFA-1 with little or no involvement of the VLA-4 and ELAM-1 pathways. In contrast, memory T cells bind better to HUVEC and utilize all four pathways. These studies demonstrate that there are at least four molecular pathways mediating T/HUVEC adhesion and that the dominance/hierarchy of these pathways varies dramatically with the activation state of the interacting cells and the differentiation state of the T cell.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1203-1212
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cell Biology
Volume113
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1991

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