We present an improved approach to the impedance spectroscopy of conductive liquid samples using four-electrode measurements. Our method enables impedance measurements of conductive liquids down to the sub-Hertz frequencies, avoiding the electrode polarization effects that usually cripple standard impedance analysers. We have successfully tested our apparatus with aqueous solutions of potassium chloride and gelatin. The first substance has shown flat spectra from ∼100 kHz down to sub-Hz range, while the results on gelatin clearly show the existence of two distinct low frequency conductive relaxations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We are pleased to acknowledge the assistance of Professor Miroslav Požek, Dr. Tomislav Vuletić, Dr. Nataša Šijaković-Vujičić, and Professor Amir Hamzić. This work was partially funded by the Croatian MZOS Projects 119-1191458-1023 and 119-1191458-1022, and UKF Project No. 55.