Foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission dynamics and persistence in a herd of vaccinated dairy cattle in India

S. S. Hayer, K. VanderWaal, R. Ranjan, J. K. Biswal, S. Subramaniam, J. K. Mohapatra, G. K. Sharma, M. Rout, B. B. Dash, B. Das, B. R. Prusty, A. K. Sharma, C. Stenfeldt, A. Perez, A. H. Delgado, M. K. Sharma, L. L. Rodriguez, B. Pattnaik, J. Arzt

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19 Scopus citations


Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an important transboundary disease with substantial economic impacts. Although between-herd transmission of the disease has been well studied, studies focusing on within-herd transmission using farm-level outbreak data are rare. The aim of this study was to estimate parameters associated with within-herd transmission, host physiological factors and FMD virus (FMDV) persistence using data collected from an outbreak that occurred at a large, organized dairy farm in India. Of 1,836 regularly vaccinated, adult dairy cattle, 222 had clinical signs of FMD over a 39-day period. Assuming homogenous mixing, a frequency-dependent compartmental model of disease transmission was built. The transmission coefficient and basic reproductive number were estimated to be between 16.2–18.4 and 67–88, respectively. Non-pregnant animals were more likely to manifest clinical signs of FMD as compared to pregnant cattle. Based on oropharyngeal fluid (probang) sampling and FMDV-specific RT-PCR, four of 36 longitudinally sampled animals (14%) were persistently infected carriers 10.5 months post-outbreak. There was no statistical difference between subclinical and clinically infected animals in the duration of the carrier state. However, prevalence of NSP-ELISA antibodies differed significantly between subclinical and clinically infected animals 12 months after the outbreak with 83% seroprevalence amongst clinically infected cattle compared to 69% of subclinical animals. This study further elucidates within-herd FMD transmission dynamics during the acute-phase and characterizes duration of FMDV persistence and seroprevalence of FMD under natural conditions in an endemic setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e404-e415
JournalTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Project 1940-32000-057-00D, the United States Department of State, Biosecurity Engagement Programme through the USDA-ARS Office of International Research Programmes, and a specific collaborative agreement between USDA-ARS and University of Minnesota. Additional funding was provided by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, and an interagency agreement between the USDA-APHIS Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health and USDA-ARS. The funding sources had no role in study design, data collection and analysis or the decision to publish the work.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH


  • R0
  • epidemiological model
  • foot-and-mouth disease
  • foot-and-mouth diseases virus
  • transmission coefficient


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