Food parenting practices for 5 to 12year old children: A concept map analysis of parenting and nutrition experts input

Teresia M. O'Connor, Louise C. Mâsse, Andrew W. Tu, Allison W. Watts, Sheryl O. Hughes, Mark R. Beauchamp, Tom Baranowski, Truc Pham, Jerica M Berge, Barbara Fiese, Rebecca Golley, Melanie Hingle, Stef P.J. Kremers, Kyung E. Rhee, Helen Skouteris, Amber Vaughn

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Background: Parents are an important influence on children's dietary intake and eating behaviors. However, the lack of a conceptual framework and inconsistent assessment of food parenting practices limits our understanding of which food parenting practices are most influential on children. The aim of this study was to develop a food parenting practice conceptual framework using systematic approaches of literature reviews and expert input. Method: A previously completed systematic review of food parenting practice instruments and a qualitative study of parents informed the development of a food parenting practice item bank consisting of 3632 food parenting practice items. The original item bank was further reduced to 110 key food parenting concepts using binning and winnowing techniques. A panel of 32 experts in parenting and nutrition were invited to sort the food parenting practice concepts into categories that reflected their perceptions of a food parenting practice conceptual framework. Multi-dimensional scaling produced a point map of the sorted concepts and hierarchical cluster analysis identified potential solutions. Subjective modifications were used to identify two potential solutions, with additional feedback from the expert panel requested. Results: The experts came from 8 countries and 25 participated in the sorting and 23 provided additional feedback. A parsimonious and a comprehensive concept map were developed based on the clustering of the food parenting practice constructs. The parsimonious concept map contained 7 constructs, while the comprehensive concept map contained 17 constructs and was informed by a previously published content map for food parenting practices. Most of the experts (52%) preferred the comprehensive concept map, while 35% preferred to present both solutions. Conclusion: The comprehensive food parenting practice conceptual map will provide the basis for developing a calibrated Item Response Modeling (IRM) item bank that can be used with computerized adaptive testing. Such an item bank will allow for more consistency in measuring food parenting practices across studies to better assess the impact of food parenting practices on child outcomes and the effect of interventions that target parents as agents of change.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number122
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 11 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The project described was supported by award number MOP-119359 from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR); LCM received salary support from the BC Child’s Hospital Research Institute (BCCHRI); AWW received postdoctoral support from CIHR; and AT received post-doctoral support from BCCHRI and the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research. This work is also a publication of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS) Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, BCM funded in part by the USDA/ARS (Cooperative Agreement 58–3092–5-001). The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the USDA, nor does mention of organizations imply endorsement from the US government.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Author(s).


  • Child
  • Concept mapping
  • Family
  • Food
  • Measurement
  • Nutrition
  • Parenting
  • Parenting practices


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